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Single molecule force clamp experiments are widely used to investigate how enzymes, molecular motors, and other molecular mechanisms work. We developed a dual-trap optical tweezers instrument with real-time (200 kHz update rate) force clamp control that can exert 0-100 pN forces on trapped beads. A model for force clamp experiments in the dumbbell-geometry(More)
With the use of myosin adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) and immunofluorescence staining methods, the adaptive responses of intrafusal and extrafusal fibers to endurance swimming were studied in frozen sections of rat soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Glycogen depletion confirmed muscle fatigue at the end of a standardized bout of(More)
We increase the effective stiffness of optical tweezers by position clamping a polystyrene bead with a predictive feedback control algorithm. This algorithm mitigates the effect of feedback loop delay. Hence, higher gain than with proportional control can be employed, which results in higher effective trap stiffness, without trap instability. In experiments(More)
The simplified artificial environments in which highly complex biological systems are studied do not represent the crowded, dense, salty, and dynamic environment inside the living cell. Consequently, it is important to investigate the effect of crowding agents on DNA. We used a dual-trap optical tweezers instrument to perform force spectroscopy experiments(More)
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