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The antimycotic clotrimazole, a potent inhibitor of the intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel, IKCa1, is in clinical trials for the treatment of sickle cell disease and diarrhea and is effective in ameliorating the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. However, inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes by clotrimazole limits its therapeutic value.(More)
The human genome encodes 40 voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(V)), which are involved in diverse physiological processes ranging from repolarization of neuronal and cardiac action potentials, to regulating Ca(2+) signalling and cell volume, to driving cellular proliferation and migration. K(V) channels offer tremendous opportunities for the development of new(More)
The voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel and the Ca(2+)-activated IKCa1 K(+) channel are expressed in T cells in a distinct pattern that depends on the state of lymphocyte activation and differentiation. The channel phenotype changes during the progression from the resting to the activated cell state and from naïve to effector memory cells, affording promise for(More)
We used whole cell recording to evaluate functional expression of the intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, IKCa1, in response to various mitogenic stimuli. One to two days following engagement of T-cell receptors to trigger both PKC- and Ca(2+)-dependent events, IKCa1 expression increased from an average of 8 to 300-800 channels/cell.(More)
Calcium-activated potassium channels modulate calcium signaling cascades and membrane potential in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this article we will review the physiological properties, the structure activity relationships of the existing peptide and small molecule modulators and the therapeutic importance of the three small-conductance(More)
The discovery of a diverse and unique set of ion channels in T lymphocytes has led to a rapidly growing body of knowledge about their functional roles in the immune system. Here we review the biophysical and molecular characterization of K+, Ca2+, and Cl− channels in T lymphocytes. Potent and specific blockers, especially of K+ channels, have provided(More)
Autoreactive memory T lymphocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate that disease-associated autoreactive T cells from patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly CD4+ CCR7- CD45RA- effector memory T cells (T(EM) cells) with elevated Kv1.3 potassium channel expression. In(More)
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (A.D.W.); Departments of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (G.A.G.) and Physiology and Biophysics (K.G.C.), University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Molecular and Cellular Physiology Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California(More)
Adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (AT-EAE), a disease resembling multiple sclerosis, is induced in rats by myelin basic protein (MBP)-activated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. By patch-clamp analysis, encephalitogenic rat T cells stimulated repeatedly in vitro expressed a unique channel phenotype ("chronically activated") with large numbers(More)
BACKGROUND Angioplasty stimulates proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), leading to neointimal thickening and vascular restenosis. In a rat model of balloon catheter injury (BCI), we investigated whether alterations in expression of Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa) contribute to intimal hyperplasia and vascular restenosis. (More)