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Membrane dynamics within the chick ciliary neuronal growth cone were investigated by using the membrane-impermeant dye FM1-43. A depolarization-evoked endocytosis was observed that shared many properties with the synaptic vesicle recycling previously described at the presynaptic terminal. In addition, in the absence of depolarization a basal level of(More)
Changes in neuronal structure can contribute to the plasticity of neuronal connections in the developing and mature nervous system. However, the expectation that they would occur slowly precluded many from considering structural changes as a mechanism underlying synaptic plasticity that occurs over a period of minutes to hours. We took time-lapse confocal(More)
Formation of neural cell polarity defined by oriented extension of axons and dendrites is a crucial event during the development of the nervous system. Ganglion cells of the chicken retina extend axons exclusively into the inner retina, whereas their dendrites grow into the outer retina. To analyze guidance cues for specific neurite extension, novel in(More)
Guided formation and extension of axons versus dendrites is considered crucial for structuring the nervous system. In the chick visual system, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) extend their axons into the tectum opticum, but not into glial somata containing retina layers. We addressed the question whether the different glia of retina and tectum opticum(More)
During neuronal development neurites are likely to be specifically guided to their targets. Within the chicken retina, ganglion cell axons are extended exclusively into the optic fibre layer, but not into the outer retina. We investigated, whether radial glial cells having endfeet at the optic fibre layer and somata in the outer retina, might be involved in(More)
Inhibition of incorrect axonal outgrowth has been shown to be a crucial guidance mechanism during the development of the nervous system. Within the visual system of chick and rat, extension of retinal ganglion cell axons is essentially restricted to distinct layers of the retina and distinct brain regions such as the tectum opticum. In addition, populations(More)
During retinal histogenesis, post-mitotic cells become located in different tissue layers, where they differentiate into distinct cell types. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms of cell differentiation, we have employed hybridoma technology in conjunction with various in vitro techniques. Here, we present monoclonal antibody 2A10, which binds specifically(More)
Beta-glucans are a heterogeneous group of natural polysaccharides mostly investigated for their immunological effects. Due to the low systemic availability of oral preparations, it has been thought that only parenterally applied beta-glucans can modulate the immune system. However, several in vivo and in vitro investigations have revealed that orally(More)
BACKGROUND The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926; in the following S. boulardii) has proven its effectiveness in preventive and therapeutic treatment of many gastrointestinal diseases, especially diseases associated with acute diarrhea. In particular, antibiotic-associated diarrhea,(More)