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The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family consists of phylogenetically conserved transmembrane proteins, which function as mediators of innate immunity for recognition of pathogen-derived ligands and subsequent cell activation via the Toll/IL-1R signal pathway. Here, we show that human TLR9 (hTLR9) expression in human immune cells correlates with responsiveness(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) require no adjuvant to confer immunogenicity to bound peptides, as if they possessed an intrinsic "danger" signature. To understand the proinflammatory nature of HSP, we analyzed signaling induced by human and chlamydial HSP60. We show that both HSP60s activate the stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK1/2, the(More)
The longstanding, successful use of herbal drug combinations in traditional medicine makes it necessary to find a rationale for the pharmacological and therapeutic superiority of many of them in comparison to isolated single constituents. This review describes many examples of how modern molecular-biological methods (including new genomic technologies) can(More)
Bacterial DNA and immunostimulatory (i.s.) synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) act as adjuvants for Th1 responses and cytotoxic T cell responses to proteinaceous antigens. Dendritic cells (DC) can be referred to as "nature's adjuvant" since they display the unique capacity to sensitize naive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that bacterial DNA or i.s.(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the potential significance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in disease activity in MS patients. METHODS The prevalence of antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, EBV, and cytomegalovirus was determined in a group of 108 MS patients and in 163 healthy control subjects. Sera were analyzed using combinations(More)
Stimulus-response coupling systems responsible for defence and adaptation of organism to stressors are multi-target and very complicated pharmacological systems, including the neuroendocrine (stress) and immune system. The mode of action of adaptogens is basically associated with the stress-system (neuroendocrine-immune complex) and can be directed on the(More)
Plant adaptogens are compounds that increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors. The beneficial effects of multi-dose administration of adaptogens are mainly associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a part of the stress-system that is believed to play a primary role in the(More)
Extracts of wild garlic (Allium ursinum) and garlic (A. sativum) with defined chemical compositions were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potential on 5-lipoxygenase (LO), cyclooxygenase (CO), thrombocyte aggregation (TA), and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). The inhibition rates as IC50 values of both extracts for 5-LO, CO, and TA showed a(More)
Cucurbitacin R diglucoside (DCR), one of the active principles of Bryonia alba L. root was found to have an effect on the production of corticosteroids and the biosynthesis of eicosanoids in the adrenal cortex, isolated adrenocortical cells, blood plasma, and leukocytes under stress and stress-free conditions in vitro and vivo. DCR prevents stress-induced(More)