Heike Jacob

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OBJECTIVE To compare three different evaluative instruments and determine which is able to measure different aspects of medical student learning. DESIGN Student learning was evaluated by using written examinations, objective structured clinical examination, and patient simulator that used two clinical scenarios before and after a structured critical care(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether fourth-year medical students can learn the basic analytic, evaluative, and psychomotor skills needed to initially manage a critically ill patient. DESIGN Student learning was evaluated using a performance examination, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students were randomly assigned to one of two clinical(More)
The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in(More)
The fear of embarrassment and humiliation is the central element of social anxiety. This frequent condition is associated with cognitive biases indicating increased sensitivity to signals of social threat, which are assumed to play a causal role in the maintenance of social anxiety. Here, we employed laughter, a potent medium for the expression of(More)
Emotional information can be conveyed by verbal and nonverbal cues with the latter often suggested to exert a greater influence in shaping our perceptions of others. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study sought to explore attentional biases toward nonverbal signals by investigating the interaction of verbal and nonverbal cues. Results(More)
Emotional communication is essential for successful social interactions. Emotional information can be expressed at verbal and nonverbal levels. If the verbal message contradicts the nonverbal expression, usually the nonverbal information is perceived as being more authentic, revealing the "true feelings" of the speaker. The present fMRI study investigated(More)
Emotional communication uses verbal and nonverbal means. In case of conflicting signals, nonverbal information is assumed to have a stronger impact. It is unclear, however, whether perceptual nonverbal dominance varies between individuals and whether it is linked to emotional intelligence. Using audiovisual stimulus material comprising verbal and nonverbal(More)
In day-to-day social interaction, emotions are usually expressed by verbal (e.g. spoken words) and nonverbal signals (e.g. facial expressions, prosody). In case of conflicting signals nonverbal signals are perceived as being the more reliable source of information. Deficits in interpreting nonverbal signals - as described for patients with schizophrenic(More)
BACKGROUND Laughter is a powerful signal of social acceptance or rejection while the fear of being embarrassed and humiliated is central in social anxiety (SA). This type of anxiety is associated with cognitive biases indicating increased sensitivity to social threat as well as with deficits in emotion regulation. Both are thought to be implicated in the(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired interpretation of nonverbal emotional cues in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in several studies and a clinical relevance of these deficits for social functioning has been assumed. However, it is unclear to what extent the impairments depend on specific emotions or specific channels of nonverbal communication. METHODS(More)