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The serotonin (5-HT) and neuropeptide S (NPS) systems are discussed as important genetic modulators of fear and sustained anxiety contributing to the etiology of anxiety disorders. Sustained anxiety is a crucial characteristic of most anxiety disorders which likely develops through contextual fear conditioning. This study investigated if and how genetic(More)
Trait anxiety, a stable personality trait associated with increased fear responses to threat, is regarded as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Although the effect of trait anxiety has been examined with regard to explicit threat cues, little is known about the effect of trait anxiety on contextual threat learning. To(More)
Several studies in animals and humans have indicated that familiarity toward cues reduces cue-conditioning effects. The influence of familiarity of a context on context conditioning has been confirmed in animal studies only. Thus, this study examined contextual fear conditioning in humans depending on pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned context. To(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. The human functional single-nucleotide BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) polymorphism has been found to be associated with alteration in neural BDNF release and function correlating with altered emotional behavior. Here, we investigated for(More)
Avoidance behaviour is a crucial component of fear and is importantly involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Presumably, fear conditioning leads to avoidance of the feared object or context. A virtual reality contextual fear conditioning paradigm was used to investigate the association between explicit conditioning effects and subsequent(More)
Extinction is an important mechanism to inhibit initially acquired fear responses. There is growing evidence that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) inhibits the amygdala and therefore plays an important role in the extinction of delay fear conditioning. To our knowledge, there is no evidence on the role of the prefrontal cortex in the extinction of(More)
The Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in human blood is an important parameter to evaluate the physiological condition. A hemoglobin test reveals how much hemoglobin is to be found in the blood. With this information anemia (a low hemoglobin level) and polycythemia vera (a high hemoglobin level) can be a diagnosed and monitored. It is also possible to observe(More)
In the perioperative area, the period before and after surgery, it is essential to measure diagnostic parameters such as oxygen saturation, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and pulse. The Hb concentration in human blood is an important parameter to evaluate the physiological condition. By determining the Hb concentration it is possible to observe imminent(More)