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Cortical spreading depression (CSD) occurrence has been suggested to be associated with seizures, migraine aura, head injury and brain ischemia-infarction. Only few studies identified CSD in human neocortical slices and no comprehensive study so far evaluated this phenomenon in human. Using the neocortical tissue excised for treatment of intractable(More)
Human neocortical temporal lobe tissue resected for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy was investigated. In slices prepared from this tissue, field potentials sometimes superimposed by population spikes were found to appear spontaneously. In individual slices, they were generalized or highly localized to a field of approximately 200 microns in(More)
Seizure susceptibility waxes and wanes in an apparently circadian manner in many epileptic patients. Fluctuations of melatonin concentration with highest levels during the night and lowest levels in the early morning could be involved in this phenomenon. Therefore, the action of melatonin on epileptic activity was tested. The experiments were carried out on(More)
Functional changes in neuronal circuitry reflected in spontaneously occurring synchronous sharp field potentials (SSFP) have been reported to occur in human brain suffering from chronic epileptogenicity but not in primary nonepileptic tissue from peritumoral resectates. Voltage sensitive dyes and fast imaging were used to visualize spontaneously occurring(More)
The antiepileptic effect of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine was tested in neocortical slice preparations (n=27) from patients ranging in age from four to 46 years (mean=25) who underwent surgery for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Epileptiform events consisted of spontaneously occurring rhythmic sharp waves as well as of(More)
Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krüger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mubetahoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of A1 adenosine receptors (A1Rs) causes antinociception after nerve injury and inflammation. However, the role of A2a adenosine receptors (A2aRs) for pain processing is less clear. In the current study, the authors investigated the role of spinal adenosine A1Rs and A2aRs for the maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia in an animal model(More)
Fluoroacetate is known to block cell metabolism and to change potassium conductances selectively in astrocytes. In a functional neuronal network with ongoing activity, we investigated the effects of such a blockade of the astrocytic metabolism by fluoroacetate on neuronal signal propagation. Transverse 400- microm slices were prepared from the caudal(More)
In animal models, the hallmark of a hypoxic condition is a strong negative shift of the DC potential (anoxic terminal negativity, ATN). This DC-shift is interpreted to be primarily due to a breakdown of the membrane potential of neurons. Such massive neuronal depolarizations have not been reported for all human neocortical neurons in vitro even during(More)
Spreading depression (SD) is characterized by a transient breakdown of neuronal function concomitant with a massive failure of ion homeostasis. It is a phenomenon that can be induced in neocortical tissue by raising excitability, e.g. injection of K(+), application of glutamatergic agonists, or blocking Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Here we report a novel method of SD(More)