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Cortical spreading depression (CSD) occurrence has been suggested to be associated with seizures, migraine aura, head injury and brain ischemia-infarction. Only few studies identified CSD in human neocortical slices and no comprehensive study so far evaluated this phenomenon in human. Using the neocortical tissue excised for treatment of intractable(More)
Human neocortical temporal lobe tissue resected for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy was investigated. In slices prepared from this tissue, field potentials sometimes superimposed by population spikes were found to appear spontaneously. In individual slices, they were generalized or highly localized to a field of approximately 200 microns in(More)
Organic calcium channel blockers have been demonstrated to abolish epileptic activity in various experimental models. Furthermore, it was shown that the antiepileptic efficacy of the organic calcium channel blocker verapamil was significantly augmented when the KCl concentration background was elevated to levels normally occurring during epileptic seizures.(More)
Functional changes in neuronal circuitry reflected in spontaneously occurring synchronous sharp field potentials (SSFP) have been reported to occur in human brain suffering from chronic epileptogenicity but not in primary nonepileptic tissue from peritumoral resectates. Voltage sensitive dyes and fast imaging were used to visualize spontaneously occurring(More)
The climination of theophylline (clearance, half-life) was investigated in 50 patients with chronic congestive heart failure (grade III/IV) and in 20 controls. The cardiac diagnosis was based on clinical and hemodynamic parameters. Patients with congestion of the liver showed a significant reduction of the theophylline body clearance to 25.7 ml/kg/h±12.1 vs(More)
PURPOSE The mechanisms of drug resistance in epilepsy are only incompletely understood. According to a current concept, overexpression of drug efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier may reduce levels of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in epileptogenic brain tissue. Increased expression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein has been found in(More)
The antiepileptic effect of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine was tested in neocortical slice preparations (n=27) from patients ranging in age from four to 46 years (mean=25) who underwent surgery for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Epileptiform events consisted of spontaneously occurring rhythmic sharp waves as well as of(More)
PURPOSE The anticonvulsant effects of the novel antiepileptic drug (AED) levetiracetam (LEV) were tested in neocortical slice preparations from 23 patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. METHODS Slices were used to evaluate the effects of LEV on two different models of epilepsy: low-Mg2+-induced untriggered and(More)
Fluoroacetate is known to block cell metabolism and to change potassium conductances selectively in astrocytes. In a functional neuronal network with ongoing activity, we investigated the effects of such a blockade of the astrocytic metabolism by fluoroacetate on neuronal signal propagation. Transverse 400-µm slices were prepared from the caudal medulla of(More)
Stimulus-induced pattern of bioelectric activity in human neocortical tissue was investigated by use of the voltage sensitive dye RH795 and a fast optical recording system. During control conditions stimulation of layer I evoked activity predominantly in supragranular layers showing a spatial extent of up to 3000 microm along layer III. Stimulation in white(More)