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When applied in toxicological studies, the recently developed gene expression profiling techniques using microarrays, which brought forth the new field of toxicogenomics, facilitate the interpretation of a toxic compound's mechanism of action. In this study, we investigated whether genotoxic carcinogens at doses known to induce liver tumors in the 2-year(More)
The carcinogenic potential of chemicals is currently evaluated with rodent life-time bioassays, which are time consuming, and expensive with respect to cost, number of animals and amount of compound required. Since the results of these 2-year bioassays are not known until quite late during development of new chemical entities, and since the short-term test(More)
In this publication, we report the outcome of the integrated EU Framework 6 PROJECT: Predictive Toxicology (PredTox), including methodological aspects and overall conclusions. Specific details including data analysis and interpretation are reported in separate articles in this issue. The project, partly funded by the EU, was carried out by a consortium of(More)
Cultivated hepatocytes represent a well-established in vitro system. However, the applicability of hepatocytes in toxicogenomics is still controversially discussed. Recently, an in vivo/in vitro discrepancy has been described, whereby the non-genotoxic rat liver carcinogen methapyrilene alters the expression of the metabolizing genes SULT1A1 and ABAT, as(More)
Application of recently developed gene expression techniques using microarrays in toxicological studies (toxicogenomics) facilitate the interpretation of a toxic compound's mode of action and may also allow the prediction of selected toxic effects based on gene expression changes. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated whether carcinogens at(More)
The genotoxicity testing battery is highly sensitive for detection of chemical carcinogens. However, it features a low specificity and provides only limited mechanistic information required for risk assessment of positive findings. This is especially important in case of positive findings in the in vitro chromosome damage assays, because chromosome damage(More)
Eker rats heterozygous for a dominant germline mutation in the tuberous sclerosis 2 (Tsc2) tumor suppressor gene were used as a model to study renal carcinogenesis. Eker and corresponding wild-type rats were exposed to genotoxic aristolochic acid (AA) or non-genotoxic ochratoxin A (OTA) to elucidate early carcinogen-specific gene expression changes and to(More)
Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as novel biomarkers (BMs) for various pathological states. To evaluate whether urinary miRNAs could serve as biomarkers for drug-induced kidney injury, we performed a nephrotoxicity study in rats with cisplatin (Cp), which is known to induce renal proximal tubular lesions in several species. Male Wistar rats(More)
Blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi is characterized by its responsiveness to testosterone (T): T suppresses development of protective immunity, whereas once acquired immunity is T-unresponsive. Here, we have analyzed the liver, a T target and lymphoid organ with anti-malaria activity, for its T-responsiveness of gene expression in immune mice. Using(More)
The kidney is one of the main targets of drug toxicity, but early detection of renal damage is often difficult. As part of the InnoMed PredTox project, a collaborative effort aimed at assessing the value of combining omics technologies with conventional toxicology methods for improved preclinical safety assessment, we evaluated the performance of a panel of(More)