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Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as novel biomarkers (BMs) for various pathological states. To evaluate whether urinary miRNAs could serve as biomarkers for drug-induced kidney injury, we performed a nephrotoxicity study in rats with cisplatin (Cp), which is known to induce renal proximal tubular lesions in several species. Male Wistar rats(More)
Cultivated hepatocytes represent a well-established in vitro system. However, the applicability of hepatocytes in toxicogenomics is still controversially discussed. Recently, an in vivo/in vitro discrepancy has been described, whereby the non-genotoxic rat liver carcinogen methapyrilene alters the expression of the metabolizing genes SULT1A1 and ABAT, as(More)
The carcinogenic potential of chemicals is currently evaluated with rodent life-time bioassays, which are time consuming, and expensive with respect to cost, number of animals and amount of compound required. Since the results of these 2-year bioassays are not known until quite late during development of new chemical entities, and since the short-term test(More)
The genotoxicity testing battery is highly sensitive for detection of chemical carcinogens. However, it features a low specificity and provides only limited mechanistic information required for risk assessment of positive findings. This is especially important in case of positive findings in the in vitro chromosome damage assays, because chromosome damage(More)
When applied in toxicological studies, the recently developed gene expression profiling techniques using microarrays, which brought forth the new field of toxicogenomics, facilitate the interpretation of a toxic compound's mechanism of action. In this study, we investigated whether genotoxic carcinogens at doses known to induce liver tumors in the 2-year(More)
Eker rats heterozygous for a dominant germline mutation in the tuberous sclerosis 2 (Tsc2) tumor suppressor gene were used as a model to study renal carcinogenesis. Eker and corresponding wild-type rats were exposed to genotoxic aristolochic acid (AA) or non-genotoxic ochratoxin A (OTA) to elucidate early carcinogen-specific gene expression changes and to(More)
Blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi is characterized by its responsiveness to testosterone (T): T suppresses development of protective immunity, whereas once acquired immunity is T-unresponsive. Here, we have analyzed the liver, a T target and lymphoid organ with anti-malaria activity, for its T-responsiveness of gene expression in immune mice. Using(More)
Although cultivated hepatocytes are widely used in the studies of drug metabolism, their application in toxicogenomics is considered as problematic, because previous studies have reported only little overlap between chemically induced gene expression alterations in liver in vivo and in cultivated hepatocytes. Here, we identified 22 genes that were altered(More)
Application of recently developed gene expression techniques using microarrays in toxicological studies (toxicogenomics) facilitate the interpretation of a toxic compound's mode of action and may also allow the prediction of selected toxic effects based on gene expression changes. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated whether carcinogens at(More)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely studied compound due to its role in renal toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, there is still no consensus on the exact mechanisms of toxicity or carcinogenicity. In the current study, we analysed the effect of OTA on three human renal proximal tubular models (human primary, RPTEC/TERT1 and HK-2 cells) and two rat renal(More)