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The ideal cryopreservation protocol would combine the benefits of slow freezing with the benefits of vitrification. This report describes a method for the ultra-rapid vitrification of oocytes using slush nitrogen in quartz capillaries. The approach minimizes the thermal mass of the vitrification vessel by using open microcapillaries made of highly(More)
The fundamental physical mechanisms of water and solute transport across cell membranes have long been studied in the field of cell membrane biophysics. Cryobiology is a discipline that requires an understanding of osmotic transport across cell membranes under nondilute solution conditions, yet many of the currently-used transport formalisms make limiting(More)
Osteochondral defects can degenerate into osteoarthritis and currently there are no good treatment alternatives available to most Orthopaedic surgeons. Osteochondral allografting can restore damaged joint surfaces but its clinical use is limited by poor access to high quality tissue. Vitrification of osteochondral tissue would allow the banking of this(More)
The osmotic virial equation was used to predict osmolalities of solutions of interest in biology. The second osmotic virial coefficients, Bi, account for the interactions between identical solute molecules. For multisolute solutions, the second osmotic virial cross coefficient, Bij, describes the interaction between two different solutes. We propose to use(More)
In this paper we report the thermal behavior of a new approach for vitrification. Thermal performance of traditional open pulled straws is compared with a new technique based on the combined use of quartz capillaries with slush nitrogen. This new method of vitrification achieved ultrafast cooling rates of 250,000 degrees C/min. As a result, a much lower(More)
Dry preservation has been explored as an energy-efficient alternative to cryopreservation, but the high sensitivity of mammalian cells to desiccation stress has been one of the major hurdles in storing cells in the desiccated state. An important strategy to reduce desiccation sensitivity involves use of the disaccharide trehalose. Trehalose is known to(More)
Stabilization of cellular material in the presence of glass-forming sugars at ambient temperatures is a viable approach that has many potential advantages over current cryogenic strategies. Experimental evidence indicates the possibility to preserve biomolecules in glassy matrices of low-molecular mobility using "glass-forming" sugars like trehalose at(More)
To determine if mouse spermatozoa could be preserved long-term without using liquid nitrogen, mouse spermatozoa in trehalose-EGTA solution were partially evaporatively dried under nitrogen gas (5 min at flow rate10 l/min) and stored for 1 week and 5 months at 4, -20, and -80 degrees C before intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertilization rates were neither(More)
Oocyte cryopreservation has become an essential tool in the treatment of infertility by preserving oocytes for women undergoing chemotherapy. However, despite recent advances, pregnancy rates from all cryopreserved oocytes remain low. The inevitable use of the cryoprotectants (CPAs) during preservation affects the viability of the preserved oocytes and(More)
Desiccation preservation holds promise as a simplified alternative to cryopreservation for the long term storage of cells. We report a study on the protective effects of intracellular and extracellular sugars during bovine sperm desiccation and the supplemental effects of the addition of an antioxidant (catalase) or a chelator (desferal). The goal of the(More)