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The Wnt/β-catenin response pathway is central to many developmental processes. Here, we assessed the role of Wnt signaling in early eye development using the mouse as a model system. We showed that the surface ectoderm region that includes the lens placode expressed 12 out of 19 possible Wnt ligands. When these activities were suppressed by conditional(More)
PURPOSE To describe the baseline findings in patients enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study. METHODS This is a longitudinal observational study of 1209 patients with keratoconus enrolled at 16 clinical centers. Its main outcome measures are corneal scarring, visual acuity, keratometry, and quality of life. (More)
PURPOSE To describe baseline and longitudinal findings of the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study. METHODS The CLEK Study is an 8-year, multi-center, natural history study of 1209 patients with keratoconus who were examined annually for 8 years. Its goals are to prospectively characterize changes in vision, corneal curvature,(More)
Contact lenses provide safe and effective vision correction for many Americans. However, contact lens wearers risk infection if they fail to wear, clean, disinfect, and store their contact lenses as directed. Over the past decade, CDC has investigated several multistate outbreaks of serious eye infections among contact lens wearers, including Acanthamoeba(More)
PURPOSE To describe age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events (CIEs) in young, soft contact lens (SCL) wearers and to model the age-related risk. METHODS A multicenter, retrospective chart review of 3549 SCL wearers (8-33 years at first observed visit, +8.00 to -12.00D, oversampling <18 years) captured CIEs from January(More)
PURPOSE To identify factors associated with rigid contact lens comfort in keratoconus. METHODS Baseline data from the 16 Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study clinical sites were analyzed for all patients wearing a rigid contact lens in their more severely keratoconic eye (as determined by steep keratometry). Corneal transplant(More)
PURPOSE To characterize gender differences in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study. DESIGN Observational, longitudinal study. METHODS A total of 1209 subjects at 16 clinics. For eye-specific categorical variables, the number of eyes per subject with the characteristic was counted. For eye-specific continuous variables,(More)
PURPOSE Previous studies have reported that the risk of corneal infectious and inflammatory events (CIEs) with soft contact lens (SCL) wear is highest in late adolescence and early adulthood. This study assesses the associations between patient age and other factors that may contribute to CIEs in young SCL wearers. METHODS After ethics approvals and(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to describe age and other risk factors for ocular events that interrupt soft contact lens (SCL) wear in youth. METHODS A retrospective chart review of SCL wearers aged 8 to 33 years at the first observed visit was conducted at six academic eye care centers in North America. Data were extracted from all visits during(More)
PURPOSE To describe the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) Study design and report baseline data for a multicenter, retrospective, observational chart review of children, teenagers, and young adult soft contact lens (SCL) wearers. METHODS Clinical charts of SCL wearers aged 8 to 33 years were reviewed at six colleges of optometry. Data were captured(More)