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The presence and activity of dendritic cells (DC) in retina is controversial, as these cells are difficult to identify in retina due to limited markers and sparse numbers. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) on the CD11c promoter to label DC allowed the visualization and quantification of retinal DC. Two retina injury models, the(More)
The reactive aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), is a product of lipid peroxidation that can covalently modify and inactivate proteins. Previously, we reported increased HNE modification of select retinal proteins resolved by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis in aged Fisher 344 x Brown Norway rats (Louie, J.L., Kapphahn, R.J., Ferrington, D.A., 2002.(More)
The Drug Enforcement Administration classified the drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, also known as Ecstacy, as a Schedule I controlled substance on July 1, 1985. The controversy surrounding the classification of MDMA is related to the question of its efficacy as an adjunct to psychotherapy and the larger issue of how to regulate the production and(More)
It is well known that immunoproteasome generates peptides for MHC Class I occupancy and recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The present study focused on evidence for alternative roles for immunoproteasome. Retina and brain were analyzed for expression of immunoproteasome subunits using immunohistochemistry and western blotting under normal(More)
To explore pathways to neuron loss in inflammatory diseases, transgenic mice expressing beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) in either astrocytes or photoreceptor cells, or both, were inoculated with activated, beta-gal-specific cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTLs). beta-gal-positive astrocytes in brain were rapidly attacked, with particular damage in cerebellum.(More)
PURPOSE The immunoproteasome is a proteasome subtype with a well-characterized role in the immune system. The presence of high immunoproteasome concentrations in the photoreceptors and synaptic regions of the immune-privileged retina implies a role in visual transmission. In this study, immunoproteasome knockout (KO) mice lacking either one (lmp7(-/-), L7)(More)
Recent studies have revealed roles for immunoproteasome in regulating cell processes essential for maintaining homeostasis and in responding to stress and injury. The current study investigates how the absence of immunoproteasome affects the corneal epithelium under normal and stressed conditions by comparing corneas from wildtype (WT) mice and those(More)
The immunoproteasome is upregulated by disease, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, suggesting an expanded role for the immunoproteasome in stress signaling that goes beyond its canonical role in generating peptides for antigen presentation. The signaling pathways that are regulated by the immunoproteasome remain elusive. However, previous studies(More)