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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the TGFbeta protein family that is essential for neuronal survival and renal morphogenesis. We show that mice who are deficient in the glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) -linked protein GFRalpha1 (GDNFRalpha) display deficits in the kidneys, the enteric nervous system, and spinal(More)
Using molecular cloning techniques, human homologs of the known members of the trk family of neurotrophin receptors have been cloned and sequenced. Overall, there is a high degree of similarity between the human sequences and those from other mammals; however, there are differences in splicing patterns. There are two spliced forms of the extracellular(More)
The development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis, wound healing and corpus luteum formation. Blood vessel neoformation is also important in the pathogenesis of many disorders, particularly rapid growth and metastasis of solid tumours. There are several potential mediators of tumour(More)
For survival, embryonic motoneurons in vertebrates depend on as yet undefined neurotrophic factors present in the limb bud. Members of the neurotrophin family are currently the best candidates for such neurotrophic factors, but inactivation of their receptor genes leads to only partial loss of motoneurons, which suggests that other factors are involved.(More)
Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for central and peripheral neurons, and is essential for the development of kidneys and the enteric nervous system. Despite the potential clinical and physiological importance of GDNF, its mechanism of action is unknown. Here we show that physiological responses to GDNF require(More)
A novel neurotrophic factor named Persephin that is approximately 40% identical to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) has been identified using degenerate PCR. Persephin, like GDNF and NTN, promotes the survival of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons in culture and prevents their degeneration after 6-hydroxydopamine(More)
The Eph-related tyrosine kinase receptor, REK7/EphA5, mediates the effects of AL-1/Ephrin-A5 and related ligands and is involved in the guidance of retinal, cortical, and hippocampal axons during development. The continued expression of REK7/EphA5 in the adult brain, in particular in areas associated with a high degree of synaptic plasticity such as the(More)
To determine whether neurotrophins act on functionally distinct populations of adult sensory neurons, the distributions of mRNAs for TrkA and tyrosine kinase-containing isoforms of TrkB and TrkC were determined in rat DRG neurons projecting to different peripheral targets. Whereas trkA was expressed by a very high percentage of visceral afferents, trkC was(More)
Determinations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron loss in nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) null mutant mice have supported the concept that neurons can switch neurotrophin dependence by revealing that many neurons must require both of these factors acting either sequentially or simultaneously during development. The situation is(More)
Administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) to aged or lesioned animals has been shown to reverse the atrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and ameliorate behavioral deficits. To examine the importance of endogenous NGF in the survival of basal forebrain cholinergic cells and in spatial memory, mice bearing a disruption mutation in one allele of(More)