Heidi L Shafford

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We describe a simple, self-retaining electromyography (EMG) electrode for use in chronic recording of EMG activity. The EMG electrode is helical in shape, resembling the screw-in fixation device on many cardiac pacing electrodes. Screw-like placement of the electrode secures it in the musculature without sutures. We have been using this electrode design to(More)
The ventrolateral (vl) periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been proposed as a site responsible for the active process triggering the onset of hypotension (i.e., phase 2) during blood loss in conscious animals (Cavun S and Millington WR. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281: R747-R752, 2001). We recorded the extracellular activity of PAG neurons in conscious(More)
Pain is a component of traumatic blood loss, yet little is known about how pain alters the response to blood loss in conscious animals. We evaluated the effects of colorectal distension on the cardiorespiratory response to blood loss in six male and six female conscious, chronically instrumented New Zealand White rabbits. The goal of these experiments was(More)
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