Heidi L Shafford

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OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of a constant-rate infusion of fentanyl on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and to determine the interaction between fentanyl and a benzodiazepine agonist (diazepam) and antagonist (flumazenil) in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS 8 mixed-breed adult dogs. PROCEDURE Dogs were anesthetized with(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intra-articular (i.a.) lidocaine plus bupivacaine on post-operative pain in sheep undergoing stifle arthrotomy. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled experimental trial. ANIMALS Sixteen adult Rambouillet-cross ewes. METHODS Sheep were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The lidocaine/bupivacaine group(More)
Fluid therapy is important for many medical conditions in veterinary patients. The assessment of patient history, chief complaint, physical exam findings, and indicated additional testing will determine the need for fluid therapy. Fluid selection is dictated by the patient's needs, including volume, rate, fluid composition required, and location the fluid(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy reduces post-operative pain in dogs following ovariohysterectomy, and to evaluate PEMF interaction with post-operative morphine analgesia. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trail. ANIMALS Sixteen healthy dogs weighing 18 (10-32) kg [median (range)] and aged 13 (3-36) months.(More)
We describe a simple, self-retaining electromyography (EMG) electrode for use in chronic recording of EMG activity. The EMG electrode is helical in shape, resembling the screw-in fixation device on many cardiac pacing electrodes. Screw-like placement of the electrode secures it in the musculature without sutures. We have been using this electrode design to(More)
The ventrolateral (vl) periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been proposed as a site responsible for the active process triggering the onset of hypotension (i.e., phase 2) during blood loss in conscious animals (Cavun S and Millington WR. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281: R747-R752, 2001). We recorded the extracellular activity of PAG neurons in conscious(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of buprenorphine administration on the cardiovascular and respiratory responses to noxious colorectal distension in conscious rabbits. STUDY DESIGN Prospective experimental trial. ANIMALS Fifteen healthy, young adult New Zealand white rabbits (eight female). METHODS Experiments were performed on conscious rabbits that(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of intravenous or subcutaneous buprenorphine in conscious rabbits. STUDY DESIGN Prospective experimental trial. ANIMALS Eight healthy, young adult New Zealand white rabbits (four female). METHODS Rabbits were instrumented with intraabdominal arterial and venous catheters and(More)
Pain is a component of traumatic blood loss, yet little is known about how pain alters the response to blood loss in conscious animals. We evaluated the effects of colorectal distension on the cardiorespiratory response to blood loss in six male and six female conscious, chronically instrumented New Zealand White rabbits. The goal of these experiments was(More)