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The immune system can act as an extrinsic suppressor of tumors. Therefore, tumor progression depends in part on mechanisms that downmodulate intrinsic immune surveillance. Identifying these inhibitory pathways may provide promising targets to enhance antitumor immunity. Here, we show that Stat3 is constitutively activated in diverse tumor-infiltrating(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulation is induced by many receptor and intracellular oncogenic proteins commonly activated in cancer, rendering molecular targeting of VEGF expression a complex challenge. While VEGF inducers abound, only two major transcription activators have been identified for its promoter: hypoxia inducible factor-1(More)
The underlying molecular mechanisms that cause immune cells, mediators of our defense system, to promote tumor invasion and angiogenesis remain incompletely understood. Constitutively activated Stat3 in tumor cells has been shown to promote tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Stat3 activation in tumor-associated(More)
DNA-alkylating agents that are platinum complexes induce apoptotic responses and have wide application in cancer therapy. The potential for platinum compounds to modulate signal transduction events that contribute to their therapeutic outcome has not been extensively examined. Among the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, Stat3(More)
Members of the genus Leishmania are important intracellular pathogens that produce either cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral disease in many areas of the world. In humans as well as in other mammals, the parasite is inoculated through the skin as a flagellated, extracellular promastigote by its arthropod vector, the sandfly. Once in its mammalian host,(More)
Using a series of techniques to identify and deplete various peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations, we studied the cytotoxic reactivity of normal individuals against the myeloid cell line K-562 in a 4-hr 51chromium-release assay. Depletion of lymphocytes bearing complement receptors had a variable, usually negligible effect on cytotoxicity. In(More)
An inverse correlation between cancer incidence and dietary intake of the trace mineral element selenium has been well established in epidemiological and experimental studies. The mechanisms for this chemoprotective effect are unresolved. Much attention has been focused on the antiproliferative effects of selenium on various normal and neoplastic cell(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a potent tumorigenic factor. Its alpha subunit (HIF-1alpha), which is tightly regulated in normal tissues, is elevated in tumors due to hypoxia and overactive growth signaling pathways. Although much is known about HIF-1alpha regulation in cancer cells, crucial molecular targets that affect HIF-1alpha levels modulated(More)