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Intestinal absorption, bioavailability, hepatic and pulmonary extraction and elimination of low doses of benzo[a]pyrene (BP; 0.7-4.4 nmol) were studied in the rat using [G-3H]BP. The hepatic extraction ratio was 0.4 both in a liver perfusion model and in vivo as determined by comparison of intravenous and intraportal infusion experiments in anaesthetized(More)
Existing systems of classification of carcinogens are a matter of discussion, world-wide. There is agreement that it should be distinguished between genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals. The risk assessment approach used for non-genotoxic chemicals is similar among different regulatory bodies: insertion of an uncertainty (safety) factor permits the(More)
Nanotechnology offers enormous potential for technological progress. Fortunately, early and intensive efforts have been invested in investigating toxicology and safety aspects of this new technology. However, despite there being more than 6,000 publications on nanotoxicology, some key questions still have to be answered and paradigms need to be challenged.(More)
The existing systems of classification of carcinogens should include a distinction between genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals. For non-genotoxic chemicals, permissible exposure levels can be derived at which no relevant human cancer risks are anticipated. While genotoxic carcinogens can induce chromosomal effects without mutagenic action,(More)
P-glycoproteins encoded by members of the mdr gene family function as membrane-situated transport proteins, isoforms of which are involved in conferring a form of multidrug resistance by participating in secretion of various xenobiotics. In primary rat hepatocytes maintained in serum-free culture, accumulation of immunodetectable P-glycoprotein and mdr1b(More)
Multidrug resistance type 1 P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP) were studied in differentiated primary human lung cells in culture, in comparison with permanent human lung cell lines and primary alveolar type II cells from rat lung. AII cells exhibited low basal levels of mdr1b mRNA, that increased over time and after(More)
The tobacco specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a strong lung carcinogen in all species tested. To elicit its tumorigenic effects NNK requires metabolic activation which is supposed to take place via alpha-hydroxylation, whereas N-oxidation is suggested to be a detoxification pathway. The differences in the organ(More)
The mutant frequency (MF) in the hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) locus of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes was measured in a population environmentally exposed to vinyl chloride - a toxic and carcinogenic substance through an accidental release into the atmosphere. It was compared to MF in a control group of unexposed individuals. Both(More)
During the last two decades, substantial efforts have been made towards the development and international acceptance of alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals. In the EU, challenging timelines for phasing out of many standard tests using laboratory animals were established in the seventh Amending Directive 2003/15/EC to Cosmetics(More)
Despite the fact that more than 5000 safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), there seems to be no resolution of the apparently deadlocked controversy as to whether exposure of the general population to BPA causes adverse effects due to its estrogenicity. Therefore, the Advisory Committee of the German Society of Toxicology reviewed(More)