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During the last two decades, substantial efforts have been made towards the development and international acceptance of alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals. In the EU, challenging timelines for phasing out of many standard tests using laboratory animals were established in the seventh Amending Directive 2003/15/EC to Cosmetics(More)
Despite the fact that more than 5000 safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), there seems to be no resolution of the apparently deadlocked controversy as to whether exposure of the general population to BPA causes adverse effects due to its estrogenicity. Therefore, the Advisory Committee of the German Society of Toxicology reviewed(More)
Nanotechnology offers enormous potential for technological progress. Fortunately, early and intensive efforts have been invested in investigating toxicology and safety aspects of this new technology. However, despite there being more than 6,000 publications on nanotoxicology, some key questions still have to be answered and paradigms need to be challenged.(More)
The transport of molecules across membranes is an essential function of all living organisms and a large number of specific transporters have evolved to carry out this function. The largest transporter gene family is the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family is comprised of nine related(More)
Queen pheromones interfere with worker reproduction in social insects. However, there is still an unresolved question as to whether this pheromone acts as an “honest” signal for workers, giving a reliable indication of the queen’s reproductive value, or as a suppressive agent, inhibiting worker reproduction independent of the queen’s reproductive capacity.(More)
Currently, comprehensive toxicological data are available only for a small percentage of the 30,000 substances produced in volumes of 1–100 tons per year in the EU. Substances with inadequate safety data sets may pose a risk to employees, consumers and the environment. To improve this unsatisfactory situation the European Commission put forward a draft(More)
Multidrug resistance type 1 P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP) were studied in differentiated primary human lung cells in culture, in comparison with permanent human lung cell lines and primary alveolar type II cells from rat lung. AII cells exhibited low basal levels of mdr1b mRNA, that increased over time and after(More)
Existing systems of classification of carcinogens are a matter of discussion, world-wide. There is agreement that it should be distinguished between genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals. The risk assessment approach used for non-genotoxic chemicals is similar among different regulatory bodies: insertion of an uncertainty (safety) factor permits the(More)
Intestinal absorption, bioavailability, hepatic and pulmonary extraction and elimination of low doses of benzo[a]pyrene (BP; 0.7-4.4 nmol) were studied in the rat using [G-3H]BP. The hepatic extraction ratio was 0.4 both in a liver perfusion model and in vivo as determined by comparison of intravenous and intraportal infusion experiments in anaesthetized(More)
Mammalian liver exhibits expression of members of the family of multidrug resistance (mdr) transporters (P-glycoproteins). P-glycoprotein isoforms encoded by mdr1 genes participate in extrusion of an array of xenobiotics into the bile. Induction of mdr1b mRNA expression has been shown to occur in rat hepatocytes in response to hepatotrophic growth factors.(More)