Heidi E. Hamm

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The structure of a heterotrimeric G protein reveals the mechanism of the nucleotide-dependent engagement of the alpha and beta gamma subunits that regulates their interaction with receptor and effector molecules. The interaction involves two distinct interfaces and dramatically alters the conformation of the alpha but not of the beta gamma subunits. The(More)
A large number of hormones, neurotransmitters, chemokines, local mediators, and sensory stimuli exert their effects on cells and organisms by binding to G protein-coupled receptors. More than a thousand such receptors are known, and more are being discovered all the time. Heterotrimeric G proteins transduce ligand binding to these receptors into(More)
Many signalling cascades use seven-helical transmembrane receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins (G alpha beta gamma) to convert extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Upon nucleotide exchange catalysed by activated receptors, heterotrimers dissociate into GTP-bound G alpha subunits and G beta gamma dimers, either of which can modulate(More)
In multicellular organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens, the maintenance of homeostasis is dependent on the continual flow and processing of information through a complex network of cells. Moreover, in order for the organism to respond to an ever-changing environment, intercellular signals must be transduced, amplified, and ultimately(More)
Heterotrimeric G proteins have a crucial role as molecular switches in signal transduction pathways mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Extracellular stimuli activate these receptors, which then catalyse GTP-GDP exchange on the G protein alpha-subunit. The complex series of interactions and conformational changes that connect agonist binding to G(More)
The 2.2 A crystal structure of activated rod transducin, Gt alpha.GTP gamma S, shows the bound GTP gamma S molecule occluded deep in a cleft between a domain structurally homologous to small GTPases and a helical domain unique to heterotrimeric G proteins. The structure, when combined with biochemical and genetic studies, suggests: how an activated receptor(More)
The nervous system can modulate neurotransmitter release by neurotransmitter activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. We found that microinjection of G protein betagamma subunits (Gbetagamma) mimics serotonin's inhibitory effect on neurotransmission. Release of free Gbetagamma was critical for this effect because a(More)
We tested the hypothesis that the albumin-docking protein gp60, which is localized in caveolae, couples to the heterotrimeric GTP binding protein G(i), and thereby activates plasmalemmal vesicle formation and the directed migration of vesicles in endothelial cells (ECs). We used the water-soluble styryl pyridinium dye(More)
The 1.8 A crystal structure of transducin alpha.GDP, when compared to that of the activated complex with GTP-gamma S, reveals the nature of the conformational changes that occur on activation of a heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit. Structural changes initiated by direct contacts with the terminal phosphate of GTP propagate to regions that have been(More)
Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder whose symptoms are caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons innervating the striatum. As striatal dopamine levels fall, striatal acetylcholine release rises, exacerbating motor symptoms. This adaptation is commonly attributed to the loss of interneuronal regulation by inhibitory D(2) dopamine receptors.(More)