Heidi C. E. Welch

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Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric GTPases, is an integrator of intracellular signaling in a wide range of cellular processes. We have purified a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-sensitive activator of Rac from neutrophil cytosol. It is an abundant, 185 kDa guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which we cloned and named P-Rex1. The recombinant enzyme has(More)
typically possess a PH domain that can bind the lipid and drive translocation of the host protein to the site of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 accumulation Summary in the plasma membrane (not all PH domains bind PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ; Lemmon and Ferguson, 2000). In many Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric cells, type 1 PI3Ks have been shown to be necessary GTPases,(More)
P-Rex1 is a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac. We have investigated here the mechanisms of stimulation of P-Rex1 Rac-GEF activity by the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) and the Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. We show that a P-Rex1 mutant lacking the PH(More)
The monomeric GTPase Rac and the lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) are intracellular signalling enzymes that each regulate a huge range of cellular functions. Their signalling pathways overlap. Several pathways lead from PI3K activation via the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3))(More)
Rac GTPases regulate cytoskeletal structure, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Deficiency in PI3Kgamma, an upstream regulator of Rac, causes a similar phenotype. P-Rex1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor(More)
P-Rex1 is a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac that is directly activated by the betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and by the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP(3)), which is generated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Gbetagamma subunits and PIP(3) are membrane-bound,(More)
The small GTPase Rac controls cell morphology, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species formation. Manipulations of Rac activity levels in the cerebellum result in motor coordination defects, but activators of Rac in the cerebellum are unknown. P-Rex family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors activate Rac. We show here that, whereas P-Rex1 expression(More)
Through their ability to regulate production of the key lipid messenger PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), the class I phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases (PI(3)Ks) support many critical cell responses. They, in turn, can be regulated by cell-surface receptors through signals acting on either their adaptor subunits (for example, through phosphotyrosine or Gbetagammas) or(More)
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation elicits neutrophil responses such as chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which depend on the small G protein Rac and are essential for host defense. P-Rex and Vav are two families of guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rac, which are activated through distinct mechanisms but can(More)
We have identified a new guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, P-Rex2, and cloned it from human skeletal muscle and brain libraries. It has widespread tissue distribution but is not expressed in neutrophils. P-Rex2 is a 183 kDa protein that activates the small GTPase Rac and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and the beta gamma(More)