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Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric GTPases, is an integrator of intracellular signaling in a wide range of cellular processes. We have purified a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-sensitive activator of Rac from neutrophil cytosol. It is an abundant, 185 kDa guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which we cloned and named P-Rex1. The recombinant enzyme has(More)
The monomeric GTPase Rac and the lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) are intracellular signalling enzymes that each regulate a huge range of cellular functions. Their signalling pathways overlap. Several pathways lead from PI3K activation via the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3))(More)
Rac GTPases regulate cytoskeletal structure, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Deficiency in PI3Kgamma, an upstream regulator of Rac, causes a similar phenotype. P-Rex1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor(More)
P-Rex1 is a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac. We have investigated here the mechanisms of stimulation of P-Rex1 Rac-GEF activity by the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) and the Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. We show that a P-Rex1 mutant lacking the PH(More)
typically possess a PH domain that can bind the lipid and drive translocation of the host protein to the site of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 accumulation Summary in the plasma membrane (not all PH domains bind PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ; Lemmon and Ferguson, 2000). In many Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric cells, type 1 PI3Ks have been shown to be necessary GTPases,(More)
Metastases are the major cause of death from melanoma, a skin cancer that has the fastest rising incidence of any malignancy in the Western world. Molecular pathways that drive melanoblast migration in development are believed to underpin the movement and ultimately the metastasis of melanoma. Here we show(More)
CAPRI is a member of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for small G proteins. It is known to function as an amplitude sensor for intracellular Ca(2+) levels stimulated by extracellular signals and has a catalytic domain with dual RasGAP and RapGAP activities. Here, we have investigated the mechanism that switches CAPRI between its two GAP(More)
Through their ability to regulate production of the key lipid messenger PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), the class I phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases (PI(3)Ks) support many critical cell responses. They, in turn, can be regulated by cell-surface receptors through signals acting on either their adaptor subunits (for example, through phosphotyrosine or Gbetagammas) or(More)
Leukocytes and amoeboid-stage cancer cells migrate in a similar manner. Key signalling molecules regulating leukocyte and cancer cell migration are phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the Rho family of small GTPases. While PI3K activity defines the leading edge of the cell, Rho family GTPases regulate the cytoskeletal remodelling during polarisation and(More)
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation elicits neutrophil responses such as chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which depend on the small G protein Rac and are essential for host defense. P-Rex and Vav are two families of guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rac, which are activated through distinct mechanisms but can(More)