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Despite intensive efforts during the past 20 years, no generally accepted standard method exists to measure black carbon (BC) or elemental carbon (EC). Data on BC and EC concentrations are method specific and can differ widely (e.g. Schmid et al., 2001, ten Brink et al., 2004). In this study, a comprehensive set of methods (both optical and thermal) is(More)
A generally accepted method to measure black carbon (BC) or elemental carbon (EC) still does not exist. An earlier study in the Vienna area comparing practically all measurement methods in use in Europe gave comparable BC and EC concentrations under summer conditions (Hitzenberger et al., 2006a). Under summer conditions, Diesel traffic is the major source(More)
A new lanthanide complex, praseodymium-2-methoxyethyl-DO3A, was tested as a temperature indicator for 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy under in vivo conditions, using a 2-T imaging system. The chemical shift of the methoxy group of the compound is strongly temperature dependent. In vitro, a shift change of -0.131 ppm/degree C was found. The signal was(More)
The present study deals with the application of N-way factor analysis for modeling and interpretation of a three-dimensional environmental data set acquired from monitoring of particulate matter (PM) collected at four different sampling locations in Lower Austria region (Central Europe). In the study the Tucker3 algorithm for N-way modeling was used. It was(More)
With use of a specially designed gradient-generating system, of anion-exchange resins of 10-20 mum particle diameter, and of an orcinol solution in concentrated sulfuric acid (1 g/liter) as detection reagent, a mixture of 16 carbohydrates can be separated in less than 4 h. The limit of detection for most sugars is in the 0.1--2.0 nanomole range. The(More)
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