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Myxobacteria are single-celled, but social, eubacterial predators. Upon starvation they build multicellular fruiting bodies using a developmental program that progressively changes the pattern of cell movement and the repertoire of genes expressed. Development terminates with spore differentiation and is coordinated by both diffusible and cell-bound(More)
Biofilms can be defined as communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. It is clear that microorganisms undergo profound changes during their transition from planktonic (free-swimming) organisms to cells that are part of a complex, surface-attached community. These changes are reflected in the new phenotypic characteristics developed by biofilm(More)
The enzymes for luminescence in Vibrio fischeri are induced by the accumulation of a species-specific metabolite (autoinducer) in the culture medium. Tritium-labeled autoinducer was used to study the mechanism of autoinduction. When 3H-autoinducer was added to suspensions of V. fischeri or Escherichia coli, cellular concentrations equaled external(More)
Myxococcus xanthus cells aggregate and develop into multicellular fruiting bodies in response to starvation. A new M. xanthus locus, designated diffor defective in fruiting, was identified by the characterization of a mutant defective in fruiting body formation. Molecular cloning, DNA sequencing and sequence analysis indicate that the dif locus encodes a(More)
Social (S)-motility in Myxococcus xanthus is a flagellum-independent gliding motility system that allows bacteria to move in groups on solid surfaces. S-motility has been shown to require type IV pili (TFP), exopolysaccharide (EPS; a component of fibrils) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previously, information concerning EPS biogenesis in M. xanthus was(More)
Starvation and cell density regulate the developmental expression of Myxococcus xanthus gene 4521. Three classes of mutants allow expression of this developmental gene during growth on nutrient agar, such that colonies of strains containing a Tn5 lac Omega4521 fusion are Lac(+). One class of these mutants inactivates SasN, a negative regulator of 4521(More)
We integrate aspects of coping response, impaired ability, and motivational explanations for the causes and consequences of drug abuse, all which were cast previously as competing or alternative paradigms. We projected a model of 1) continual daily drug use as a consequence of early adolescent psychological symptoms and 2) continual daily drug use as an(More)
To determine whether activated complement components appear in the circulation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we measured C5a and C3a by radioimmunoassay. Mean C5a concentration in the plasma of acutely ill SLE patients was 46.0 ng/ml, compared with 17.1 ng/ml in normal controls (P less than 0.01). Mean C3a concentration in patients(More)
Progression through early Myxococcus xanthus multicellular fruiting body development requires the generation of and response to extracellular A signal. Extracellular A signal is a specific set of amino acids at an extracellular concentration greater than 10 muM. It functions as a cell density signal during starvation that allows the cells to sense that a(More)