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PURPOSE In Utah, the prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviors are lower than in most other male populations, whereas women experience higher mortality risk because of higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. METHODS Life tables from Utah, Denmark,(More)
Undernutrition during critical or sensitive prenatal periods may 'program' the fetus for increased chronic disease and mortality in later life. Using birth cohorts that were or were not exposed to severe food shortage in Utah in the mid-19th century, this study examines how in utero exposure to undernutrition is associated with mortality after age 50. The(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS It is not clear whether familial risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) varies with age of index CRC patients or their relatives. We quantified the risk of CRC in first-degree relatives (FDRs), second-degree relatives, and first-cousin relatives of individuals with CRC, stratified by ages and sexes of index patients and ages of relatives. (More)
OBJECTIVES Empirical studies of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk have found mixed results. One possible cause of these mixed findings is the variation in neighbourhood geographic scale used. The purpose of this paper was to examine how various neighbourhood geographic scales affected the estimated(More)
BACKGROUND A burgeoning literature links attributes of neighbourhoods' built environments to residents' physical activity, food and transportation choices, weight, and/or obesity risk. In cross-sectional studies, non-random residential selection impedes researchers' ability to conclude that neighbourhood environments cause these outcomes. METHODS(More)
Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have a significantly higher lifetime risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer. We suggest that female mutation carriers may have improved fitness owing to enhanced fertility relative to non-carriers. Here we show that women who are carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations living in natural fertility conditions have excess fertility as(More)
Reproductive lives of men and women may provide significant insight into later-life morbidity and mortality. Sociological, biological, and evolutionary theories predict a relationship between reproductive history and later-life health; however, current research is lacking consensus on the direction of the relationship. Parity, early age at first birth and(More)
BACKGROUND Neighborhood designs often relate to physical activity and to BMI. PURPOSE Does neighborhood walkability/bikeability relate to BMI and obesity risk and does moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) account for some of the relationship? METHODS Census 2000 provided walkability/bikeability measures-block group proportions of workers who(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to test if moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in less than the recommended ≥10-minute bouts related to weight outcomes. DESIGN Secondary data analysis. SETTING Random sample from the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). (More)
The relationship between interest in management roles and personality, demographic, and career background characteristics of 122 female nurses was investigated. The study tested the proposition that women in nursing seek roles within the profession that permit the expression of their personalities. The subjects, first-quarter master's degree students, were(More)