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The objectives of this article are (1) to introduce pediatric delirium and provide understanding of acute brain dysfunction with its classification and clinical presentations (2) to understand how delirium is diagnosed and discuss current modes of delirium diagnosis in the critically ill adult population and translation to pediatrics (3) to understand the(More)
Carbamyl phosphate synthetase I (CPSI) determines the rate-limiting entry of free ammonia into the urea cycle. Disruption of CPSI affects the liver's ability to remove waste nitrogen and produce arginine, citrulline, and urea. Arginine is the necessary precursor for the critical biomolecule, nitric oxide (NO). We have studied the classic model of CPSI(More)
OBJECTIVE To validate a diagnostic instrument for pediatric delirium in critically ill children, both ventilated and nonventilated, that uses standardized, developmentally appropriate measurements. DESIGN AND SETTING A prospective observational cohort study investigating the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU) patients(More)
This review article updates the pediatric medical community on the current literature regarding diagnosis and treatment of delirium in critically ill children. This information will be of value to pediatricians, intensivists, and anesthesiologists in developing delirium monitoring and management protocols in their pediatric critical care units.
OBJECTIVES Delirium assessments in critically ill infants and young children pose unique challenges due to evolution of cognitive and language skills. The objectives of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of a fundamentally objective and developmentally appropriate delirium assessment tool for critically ill infants and preschool-aged(More)
Newborn piglets develop pulmonary hypertension and have diminished pulmonary vascular nitric oxide (NO) production when exposed to chronic hypoxia. NO is produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in the pulmonary vascular endothelium using l-arginine as a substrate and producing l-citrulline as a byproduct. l-Citrulline is metabolized to l-arginine by two(More)
OBJECTIVE The study sought to determine whether citrulline supplementation, a precursor to nitric oxide synthesis, is safe and efficacious in increasing plasma citrulline concentrations and decreasing the risk of postoperative pulmonary hypertension. STUDY DESIGN Forty children, undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and at risk for pulmonary hypertension,(More)
OBJECTIVE Pulmonary hypertension may complicate surgical correction of congenital heart defects, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that plasma levels of the nitric oxide precursors citrulline and arginine drop precipitously after congenital cardiac surgery and that oral citrulline supplementation may be protective(More)
Increased pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) can complicate the postoperative care of children undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart defects. Endogenous NO regulates PAP and is derived from arginine supplied by the urea cycle. The rate-limiting step in the urea cycle is catalyzed by a mitochondrial enzyme, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I (CPSI). A(More)
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help(More)