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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to address the question whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) activity prior to a stimulus event is predictive of whether the event will be successfully encoded in an incidental study task. Participants were scanned while making pleasantness judgments on words presented either in written or spoken form. A(More)
The notion of multiple memory systems based on conscious accessibility has been supported largely by neuropsychological patient studies. Specifically, it was widely held that amnesic patients have impaired explicit memory performance but spared implicit memory performance. However, recent patient studies have called the implicit/explicit memory distinction(More)
The majority of computationally specified models of recognition memory have been based on a single-process interpretation, claiming that familiarity is the only influence on recognition. There is increasing evidence that recognition is, in fact, based on two processes: recollection and familiarity. This article reviews the current state of the evidence for(More)
The principle of transfer-appropriate processing and the cortical reinstatement hypothesis are two influential theoretical frameworks, articulated at the psychological and neurobiological levels of explanation, respectively, that each propose that the processes supporting the encoding and retrieval of episodic information are strongly interdependent. Here,(More)
There is a popular hypothesis that performance on implicit and explicit memory tasks reflects 2 distinct memory systems. Explicit memory is said to store those experiences that can be consciously recollected, and implicit memory is said to store experiences and affect subsequent behavior but to be unavailable to conscious awareness. Although this division(More)
This experiment investigated whether the neural correlates of inter-item associative encoding vary according to study task. At study, pairs of unrelated words were subjected to either semantic or phonological relational judgments. Test items comprised studied word pairs (intact), pairs comprised of words belonging to different study pairs (rearranged), and(More)
Although it is well-documented that there are age differences between young and older adults in neural activity associated with successful memory formation (positive subsequent memory effects), little is known about how this activation differs across the lifespan, as few studies have included middle-aged adults. The present study investigated the effect of(More)
The ability to form a new association with discontiguous elements constitutes the very crux of episodic memory. However, it is not fully understood whether different types of associations rely on common neural correlates for encoding associations. In the present study, we investigated whether the formation of associative memory (associations between items)(More)
The present study investigated whether the neural correlates of source memory vary according to study task. Subjects studied visually presented words in one of two background contexts. In each test, subjects made old/new recognition and source memory judgments. In one study test cycle, study words were subjected to animacy judgments, whereas in another(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated whether the enhanced memory performance associated with congruent relative to incongruent retrieval cues is modulated by how items are encoded. Subjects studied a list of visually presented words and pictures and attempted to recognize these items in a later memory test. Half of the(More)