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Copper is an essential yet toxic trace element. The Ctr1 family of proteins plays a critical role for copper uptake in eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of action of Ctr1 are largely unknown. Our previous data demonstrated that copper transport induces conformational changes in the cytosolic C terminus of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ctr1. To define(More)
Copper (Cu2+) is a physiologically important cation and is released from nerve terminals. Cu2+ modulates GABAA receptor currents in an alpha subunit subtype-dependent manner; alpha1beta3gamma2L receptors are more sensitive to Cu2+ than alpha6beta3gamma2L receptors. We compared the effect of Cu2+ on alphabeta3gamma2L receptors containing each of the six(More)
Copper is a vital trace element required for normal growth and development of many organisms. To determine the roles for copper transporter 1 (Ctr1) in hepatic copper metabolism and the contribution of the liver to systemic copper homeostasis, we have generated and characterized mice in which Ctr1 is deleted specifically in the liver. These mice express(More)
Copper is a vital mineral for many organisms, yet it is highly toxic as demonstrated by serious health concerns associated with its deficiency or excess accumulation. The SLC31 (CTR) family of copper transporters is a major gateway of copper acquisition in eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans. Characterization of the function, modes of action, and(More)
Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive trait that compromises production of glutathione, a critical redox buffer and enzymatic cofactor. Patients have markedly reduced levels of erythrocyte glutathione, leading to hemolytic anemia and, in some cases, impaired neurological function. Human glutamate cysteine ligase is a(More)
Previously, a missense polymorphism was identified in the mouse nicotinic receptor alpha4 subunit gene, Chrna4. This polymorphism leads to an Ala/Thr variation at amino acid position 529 of the alpha4 subunit. Chrna4 A529T is associated with several measures of acute sensitivity to nicotine as well as with mouse strain differences in nicotine-stimulated(More)
AIMS Acquisition and detoxification of metal ions are vital biological processes. Given the requirement of metallochaperones in cellular copper distribution and metallation of cuproproteins, this study investigates whether the metallochaperones also deliver metal ions for transporters functioning in metal detoxification. RESULTS Resistance to excess(More)
A network of conserved proteases known as the intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) system is central to mitochondrial protein homeostasis and cellular health. IMQC proteases also appear to participate in establishment of signaling cues for mitochondrion-to-nucleus communication. However, little is known about this process. Here, we show that in(More)