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The expression of caveolin-1, -2, and -3 in the spinal cords of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was analyzed. Western blot analysis showed that three isotypes of caveolins including caveolin-1, -2 and -3 increased significantly in the spinal cords of rats during the early stage of EAE, as compared with the levels in control(More)
Biocompatible nanomaterials and hydrogels have become an important tool for improving cell-based therapies by promoting cell survival and protecting cell transplants from immune rejection. Although their potential benefit has been widely evaluated, at present it is not possible to determine, in vivo, if and how long cells remain viable following their(More)
Expression of osteopontin and CD44 in the brain was studied after cryolesioning to understand how osteopontin and its receptor, CD44, are involved in processes in the brains of rats with cryolesions. Western blot analysis showed that osteopontin increased significantly at days 4 and 7 post-injury and declined slightly thereafter in cryolesioned brains in(More)
The expression of arginases, enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea, was studied in the inflammatory lesions of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. The level of arginase-1 expression in rat spinal cords with clip compression injury was determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Western blot showed that the(More)
Human glial precursor cells (hGPs) have potential for remyelinating lesions and are an attractive cell source for cell therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate whether transplanted hGPs can affect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of transplanted hGPs(More)
The expression and immunohistochemical localization of galectin-3, a beta-galactoside-binding protein, was studied in several mouse tissues. Galectin-3 expression was low in the cerebrum, heart, and pancreas, and moderate in the liver, ileum, kidney, and adrenal gland. High expression of galectin-3 was found in the lung, spleen, stomach, colon, uterus, and(More)
The expression of osteopontin (OPN) was studied in the brains of mice with scrapie. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of OPN protein and mRNA was increased significantly in the scrapie-infected brains compared to the controls. The increased expression of OPN protein was largely(More)
Arginase-1, a marker for M2 phenotype alternatively activated macrophages, inhibits inflammation and is associated with phagocytosis of cell debris and apoptotic cells. We analyzed the expression of arginase-1, a competitive enzyme of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in the spinal cords of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis(More)
Toluene, a representative industrial solvent and abused inhalant, decreases neuronal activity in vitro and causes mental depression and cognitive impairment in humans. However, the effects of toluene on brain function and the sites of its action are poorly understood. This study investigated the temporal changes of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult(More)
To examine the involvement of phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes in postnatal testis development, the expression of PLD1 and PLD2 was examined in the mouse testis at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The expression of both PLD1 and PLD2 increased gradually with development from postnatal week 1 to 8.(More)