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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers have been shown to relieve persistent pain; however, the mechanism is not clearly understood. Superoxide produced from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is considered the major source of ROS in neurons during excitation where mitochondrial superoxide levels are normally controlled by superoxide dismutase(More)
In the present study, we have examined whether spinal hemisection injury induces changes in the electrophysiological properties of thalamic ventral posteriorlateral (VPL) neurons in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral spinal cord injury by transverse hemisection at the T13 spinal segment. Four weeks after the T13 spinal hemisection,(More)
Cocaine addiction is associated with high rates of relapse, and stress has been identified as a major risk factor. We have previously demonstrated that acupuncture reduces drug self-administration and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure implicated in stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. This study was(More)
The underlying mechanism of chronic pain is believed to be changes in excitability in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons that respond abnormally to peripheral input. Increased excitability in pain transmission neurons, and depression of inhibitory neurons, are widely recognized in the spinal cord of animal models of chronic pain. The possible occurrence of 2(More)
Although both a loss of spinal inhibitory neurotransmission and the involvement of oxidative stress have been regarded as important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of pain, the relationship between these 2 mechanisms has not been studied. To determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement in pain mechanisms is related to the diminished inhibitory(More)
The increase of cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](c)) due to NMDA receptor activation is a key step for spinal cord synaptic plasticity by altering cellular signal transduction pathways. We focus on this plasticity as a cause of persistent pain. To provide a mechanism for these classic findings, we report that [Ca(2+)](c) does not trigger synaptic plasticity(More)
Scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to produce a strong antinociceptive effect on persistent pain, and mitochondria are suggested to be the main source of ROS in the spinal dorsal horn. To explore whether excessive generation of mitochondrial superoxide alone can induce pain, the effect of mitochondrial electron transport complex(More)
Administration of cocaine increases locomotor activity by enhancing dopamine transmission. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment for drug addiction, we developed a novel mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI) for objective mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether acupuncture inhibition of(More)
Repeated morphine administration increases extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, which results in behavioral sensitization that can be suppressed by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT7) points. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of acupuncture at HT7 on morphine withdrawal syndrome as well as to explore the role of GABA(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of behavioral sensitization following repeated cocaine exposure. We hypothesized that increased ROS following cocaine exposure would act as signaling molecules in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which might play an important role in mediating the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The(More)