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Although a number of studies suggest that the development of tinnitus is associated with hyperactive neuronal discharges in the brainstem cochlear nucleus (CN), there is relatively little evidence to indicate the neurochemical basis of this phenomenon. While some studies suggest that it may be partly due to a decrease in GABAergic inhibition, it is also(More)
Computational models of analogy have assumed that the strength of an inductive inference about the target is based directly on similarity of the analogs and in particular on shared higher order relations. In contrast, work in philosophy of science suggests that analogical inference is also guided by causal models of the source and target. In 3 experiments,(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS This study assessed the antibiotic resistance organisms isolated from the blood and bile of acute cholangitis and evaluated risk factors associated with them and their impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS The identities and antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from 433 cases of acute cholangitis from 346 patients were(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Newly developed and potent antiviral agents suffer from the problem of drug resistance. Multidrug resistance is a major impediment in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In line with American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines, adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) add-on therapy is recommended in the case of(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Ampullary tumors come in a wide variety of malignant forms. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy for ampullary tumors, and analyzed the causes of misdiagnosis. METHODS We compared endoscopic imaging and biopsy results to final diagnoses. Types of endoscope, numbers of biopsy specimens taken, and final diagnoses were evaluated(More)
Contradictory evidence has been reported on the effects of discovery learning approach and the role of instructional explanations. By manipulating the presence of instruction (verbal explanation) and transparency of problem structures, we investigated how effects of instructional explanations differed depending on the transparency of problem structure. We(More)
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of matrix components in liver disease such as fibrosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in HSCs has been shown to induce fibrogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the anti-fibrotic activity of a novel imidazopyridine analogue (HS-173) in human HSCs as well as mouse liver fibrosis. HS-173(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of the unilateral stellate ganglion block (SGB) on cardiovascular regulation remains controversial. We wished to evaluate the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) after a unilateral stellate ganglion block in patients with head and neck pain in the present study. METHODS Patients with head and neck pain (n = 89) were studied. HRV(More)
PURPOSE Obesity is associated with a number of medical comorbidities and is considered a risk factor for surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of body habitus including obesity on the surgical outcomes of the Bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic thyroidectomy (RoT) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)(More)