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A fundamental issue for theories of human induction is to specify constraints on potential inferences. For inferences based on shared category membership, an analogy, and/or a relational schema, it appears that the basic goal of induction is to make accurate and goal-relevant inferences that are sensitive to uncertainty. People can use source information at(More)
Although a number of studies suggest that the development of tinnitus is associated with hyperactive neuronal discharges in the brainstem cochlear nucleus (CN), there is relatively little evidence to indicate the neurochemical basis of this phenomenon. While some studies suggest that it may be partly due to a decrease in GABAergic inhibition, it is also(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of the unilateral stellate ganglion block (SGB) on cardiovascular regulation remains controversial. We wished to evaluate the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) after a unilateral stellate ganglion block in patients with head and neck pain in the present study. METHODS Patients with head and neck pain (n = 89) were studied. HRV(More)
A seemingly unending controversy in the field of instruction science concerns how much instructional guidance needs to be provided in a learning environment. At the one extreme lies the claim that it is important for students to explore and construct knowledge for themselves, which is often called discovery learning, and at the other extreme lies the claim(More)
Computational models of analogy have assumed that the strength of an inductive inference about the target is based directly on similarity of the analogs and in particular on shared higher order relations. In contrast, work in philosophy of science suggests that analogical inference is also guided by causal models of the source and target. In 3 experiments,(More)
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of matrix components in liver disease such as fibrosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in HSCs has been shown to induce fibrogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the anti-fibrotic activity of a novel imidazopyridine analogue (HS-173) in human HSCs as well as mouse liver fibrosis. HS-173(More)
In this fMRI study, students learned to solve algebra-like problems in one of the four instructional conditions during behavioral session and solved transfer problems during imaging session. During learning, subjects were given explanatory or non-explanatory verbal instruction, and examples that illustrated the problem structure or the solution procedure.(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS This study assessed the antibiotic resistance organisms isolated from the blood and bile of acute cholangitis and evaluated risk factors associated with them and their impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS The identities and antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from 433 cases of acute cholangitis from 346 patients were(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Newly developed and potent antiviral agents suffer from the problem of drug resistance. Multidrug resistance is a major impediment in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In line with American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines, adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) add-on therapy is recommended in the case of(More)