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Vibrio vulnificus causes acute cell death and a fatal septicaemia. In this study, we show that contact with host cells is a prerequisite to the acute cytotoxicity. We screened transposon mutants defective in the contact-dependent cytotoxicity. Two mutants had insertions within two open reading frames in a putative RTX toxin operon, the rtxA1 or rtxD(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontopathogen, is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a proinflammatory cytokine, regulates innate immune responses and is critical for the host defense against bacterial infection. However, excessive IL-1β is linked to periodontal destruction. IL-1β synthesis, maturation, and(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression primarily by degrading target mRNA or inhibit the translation of protein product. Recently, many reports have shown the altered miRNA expression in various diseases. However, there are no reports on miRNA expression related to periodontitis. Thus, this study aimed to compare(More)
The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus produces cytotoxins that induce the acute death of host cells. However, the secretory mechanisms of such cytotoxins have not been extensively studied. Previously, we reported that substantial amounts of V. vulnificus cytolysin-hemolysin (VvhA) are produced in vivo during the bacterial infection in mice and that(More)
BACKGROUND There have been several reports describing the capability of ginseng extracts as an adjuvant. In this study, we tested if ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, was effective in enhancing antibody response to orally delivered Salmonella antigen. METHODS Ginsan was treated before oral salmonella antigen administration. Salmonella(More)
Experiments were designed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic interactions of anticancer drugs in combination, evaluate synergistic activity in vivo and utilize micelle-forming polymeric drugs as drug carriers in a murine cancer model. Antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, CPT-11, oxaliplatin, etoposide, mitomycin-C, doxorubicin and paclitaxel were(More)
Intestinal M cells in Peyer's patches, the specialized antigen-sampling cells of the mucosal immune system, are exploited by Salmonella and other pathogens as a route of invasion. Thus, M cells have attracted lots of attention as a major target of the mucosal immune system. Here, we report that caveolin-1 plays a crucial role in the entry of Salmonella into(More)
Attenuated bacteria have long been developed as vaccine candidates but can have some disadvantages, such as the potential for damage to immune organs due to insufficient clearance. To minimize these disadvantages, we generated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants SHJ2104 (asd::cm) and HTSaYA (wzy::km, asd::cm). The wzy gene codes for the(More)
BACKGROUND Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by periodontopathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the level of translation. MiRNAs have been reported to be involved in inflammatory processes. In this study, we examined the(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine whether periurethral injection of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could increase the leak point pressure (LPP) in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g, n = 30) were divided into 3 groups: sham operation (group C), saline-treated(More)