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Pharmacokinetics of liquiritigenin (LQ) and its two glucuronide metabolites, M1 and M2, in mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs and animal scale-up of the pharmacokinetic parameters of LQ were evaluated. After intravenous administration of LQ, the AUC (AUC(0-t)) values of LQ, M1, and M2 were proportional to LQ doses in all animals studied. Animal scale-up of some(More)
Iron-overload disorders cause hepatocyte injury and inflammation by oxidative stress, possibly leading to liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study investigated the efficacy of sauchinone, a bioactive lignan, in preventing iron-induced liver injury and explored the mechanism of sauchinone's activity. To create iron overload, mice were injected(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim was to develop a long-term delivery system for Apo2 ligand/tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) without chemical modification (such as pegylation). METHODS A nanocomplex system between the positively charged TRAIL and the negatively charged chondroitin sulfate (CS) (CS/TRAIL) was designed and applied in(More)
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The pharmacokinetics of astaxanthin after its intravenous (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) and oral (100 and 200 mg/kg) administration and its first-pass extraction ratios after its intravenous, intraportal or intragastric (20 mg/kg) administration were evaluated in rats. The(More)
Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active component of licorice, has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inhibitory nitric oxide synthase expression. This study investigated the effects of LQ on choleresis, the expression of hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes, and fulminant hepatitis. The choleretic effect and the pharmacokinetics of LQ and its glucuronides(More)
Pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and its metabolite, N-desmethylsildenafil, in humans and rats with liver cirrhosis (LC) and diabetes mellitus (DM), alone and in combination (LCD) did not seem to be reported. Sildenafil was administered intravenously (10 mg/kg) and orally (20 mg/kg) to control, LC, DM, and LCD rats. Expression of intestinal CYP isozymes in(More)
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is used to treat uncomplicated hypertension. However, many studies have reported the variance of inter-individual response to HCTZ. A meta-analysis of published data was conducted to evaluate the pharmacogenetic associations of ACE I/D and ADD1 Gly460Trp polymorphisms with blood pressure changes during HCTZ therapy. To analyze the(More)
BACKGROUND Drug transporters play important roles in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs and thereby, modulate drug efficacy and toxicity. With a growing use of poly pharmacy, concurrent administration of herbal extracts that modulate transporter activities with drugs can cause serious adverse reactions. Therefore, prediction and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Orthostatic hypotension has been observed when PDE 5 (cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5) inhibitors are co-administered with alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. Here we assessed the pharmacokinetic and haemodynamic interactions between udenafil and tamsulosin in rats, as both drugs are metabolized via rat hepatic cytochrome P450(More)
Magnolol (MAG; 5,5'-diallyl-2,2'-biphenyldiol) is a major bioactive component of Magnolia officinalis. We investigated the metabolic interactions of MAG with hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) through in vitro microsomal metabolism study using human (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). CYP2C and 3A subfamilies were significantly involved in the(More)