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The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by premutation expansions (55-200 CGG repeats) in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The pathologic hallmark of FXTAS is the ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusion found in neurons and astrocytes in broad distribution throughout the brain.(More)
A quantitative estimate of cerebral blood oxygen saturation is of critical importance in the investigation of cerebrovascular disease because of the fact that it could potentially provide information on tissue viability in vivo. In the current study, a multi-echo gradient and spin echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence was used to acquire images from(More)
The Notch signaling pathway is an important cell signaling system, which regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and is aberrantly activated in a wide range of cancer, including ovarian cancers. However, it remains unclear as to whether Notch signaling plays a role in the progression and prognosis of ovarian cancer. We examined the(More)
BACKGROUND Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to play an important role in the development of cervical carcinoma, and it is known that certain HPV types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are highly associated with cervical carcinoma. However, the pathologic behavior of other HPV types remains unclear. Recently, a new HPV detection technique, the(More)
AIMS Notch signalling plays diverse roles in malignant tumours as well as in normal tissue development. In this study we investigated the expression of Notch signalling pathway genes and their clinicopathological significance in gastric carcinomas. METHODS AND RESULTS Notch1, Notch3, Jagged1, Jagged2 and Hes1 expression were analysed by quantitative(More)
BACKGROUND Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide among gynecological malignancies, and the majority of cases are related with recurrence and chemoresistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be one of the causes of recurrent or chemoresistant ovarian cancer, and microRNAs are regulatory molecules newly implicated to(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to understand the involvement of imprinted genes in the pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) such as hydatidiform mole (H-mole) and gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT). METHODS An allelic-typing assay was performed using a PCR-RFLP-based method for identification of heterozygous informative cases. The usage of(More)
Dense fibrosis, which is caused by desmoplastic reaction, is usually found in invasive ductal carcinoma and may represent the alteration of the tumor microenvironment preceding tumor invasion. Thus, the dense fibrotic zone around invasive ductal carcinoma can be considered to be the actual tissue site of tumor microenvironment, where the precedent(More)