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We aimed to assess whether allelic variants of dopamine receptor, glutamate receptor, and serotonin transporter genes are associated with the appearance of impulse control and related behaviors (ICRB) in Parkinson's disease (PD) with dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). We surveyed ICRB in consecutive Korean patients with PD who were treated with stable DRT(More)
The G2385R (SNP accession no. rs34778348) and R1628P (rs33949390) variants of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, PARK8) are emerging as an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) in the ethnic Chinese and Japanese populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these variants are a genetic risk factor in sporadic PD patients(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking reduces appetite and body weight. Cessation of smoking leads to hyperphagia and weight gain. Food intake is a function of meal number (MN) and meal size (MZ) (i.e., Food intake = MN x MZ). The effect of nicotine on these feeding components and their relationships to dopamine and serotonin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA)(More)
Methoxetamine (MXE) is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to ketamine. Recently, there have been many reports regarding its use/misuse in humans which have resulted in serious or even fatal outcomes. Despite these reports, MXE is not controlled or regulated in many countries which may be(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by three main behavioral symptoms including social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence shows gender bias to male. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a drug used in epilepsy and bipolar disorder, induces autistic(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the independent effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathologies on brain structural changes and cognition. METHODS Amyloid burden (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] retention ratio), CVD markers (volume of white matter hyperintensities [WMH] and number of lacunae), and structural changes (cortical(More)
Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in human. Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are most widely investigated diseases among all others in respect to the ginseng's therapeutic effects. These include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia, depression, and many other neurological disorders including(More)
Obesity is a known cause of metabolic syndrome which includes Type II diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. It is well documented that insulin resistance contributes to the mortality and the incidence of metabolic syndromes including central obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Both obesity and diabetes are emerging topics for(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) manifests a wide spectrum of non-cerebellar system involvements. The objective of this study was to examine the presence of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system derangement in SCA6. Eight patients with SCA6 who underwent a regular follow-up for at least 2 years participated in this study. A detailed neurological examination(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a neuroimaging marker of small vessel disease (SVD) with relevance for understanding disease mechanisms in cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and normal aging. It is hypothesized that lobar CMBs are due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and deep CMBs are due to subcortical ischemic SVD. We tested this(More)