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Nicotine causes changes in brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) during smoking that initiate addiction. Nicotine-induced upregulation is the long-lasting increase in nAChR radioligand binding sites in brain resulting from exposure. The mechanisms causing upregulation are not established. Many different mechanisms have been reported with the(More)
Recent evidence suggests that in addition to alpha4beta2 and alpha3-containing nicotinic receptors, alpha6-containing receptors are present in midbrain dopaminergic neurons and involved in the nicotine reward pathway. Using heterologous expression, we found that alpha6beta2, like alpha3beta2 and alpha4beta2 receptors, formed high affinity epibatidine(More)
Intersex in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has been correlated with regional anthropogenic activity, but has not been causally linked to environmental factors. Four groups of hatchery-reared largemouth bass (LMB) and fathead minnows (FHM) of varying ages and sex were exposed to aqueous poultry litter mixtures, 17β-estradiol (E2), and controls.(More)
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