Heather Smith

Learn More
Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) super-family member, has been well characterized as a negative regulator of muscle growth and development. Myostatin has been implicated in several forms of muscle wasting including the severe cachexia observed as a result of conditions such as AIDS and liver cirrhosis. Here we show that Myostatin(More)
The myogenic regulatory factor MyoD plays an important role in embryonic and adult skeletal muscle growth. Even though it is best known as a marker for activated satellite cells, it is also expressed in myonuclei, and its expression can be induced by a variety of different conditions. Several model systems have been used to study the mechanisms behind MyoD(More)
PURPOSE We determined and compared the magnitude of changes in resting plasma myostatin and IGF-1, muscle strength, and size in response to whole body or local muscle resistance training in healthy men. METHODS Volunteers performed high-intensity resistance exercise of major muscle groups of the whole body (N = 11), or of the elbow flexors only (N = 6),(More)
Water polo has been played for over a century. While the rules of the game have evolved considerably over this time, the sport has consistently remained, physiologically, a highly demanding activity. Much attention has been paid to the technical and strategic elements of the game; however, despite the potential for improvements in athletic performance and(More)
The aims of this study were to characterize the pattern of voluntary activity of young rats in response to resistance loading on running wheels and to determine the effects of the activity on the growth of six limb skeletal muscles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were housed individually with a resistance running wheel (R-RUN, n = 7) or a(More)
The effects of increased functional loading on early cellular regenerative events after exercise-induced injury in adult skeletal muscle were examined with the use of in vivo labeling of replicating myofiber nuclei and immunocyto- and histochemical techniques. Satellite cell proliferation in the soleus (Sol) of nonexercised rats (0.4 +/- 0.2% of fibers) was(More)
Nuclear DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes, indicative of myonuclear apoptosis, were examined in adult skeletal muscle in response to short-term immobilization. Adult rabbits were allocated to 2 days (n=5) or 6 days (n=5) of unilateral casting of the ankle in full plantar flexion or were used as untreated controls (n=2). Atrophy of the soleus(More)
Even for moderate size inputs, there are a tremendous number of optimal rearrangement scenarios, regardless what the model is and which specific question is to be answered. Therefore giving one optimal solution might be misleading and cannot be used for statistical inferring. Statistically well funded methods are necessary to sample uniformly from the(More)
This study was conducted to quantify and compare the extent of fibre degenerative and regenerative processes in different muscles of the rat hindlimb following single or repeated daily bouts of treadmill exercise. Wistar rats were used as non-exercised controls, or subjected to one, five, or ten (n = 8 per group), 30-minute daily bouts (-16 degrees,(More)
Few studies have examined the aerobic demand of backstroke swimming, and its relation to body morphology, technique, or performance. The aims of this study were thus to: i) describe the aerobic demand of backstroke swimming in proficient swimmers at high velocities; ii) assess the effects of body size and stroke technique on submaximal and maximal O2 costs,(More)