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Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they(More)
Newly emerged adult bees were fed with Nosema apis spores subjected to various treatments, and their longevity, proportions of bees infected, and spores per bee recorded. Spores lost viability after 1, 3, or 6 months in active manuka or multifloral honey, after 3 days in multifloral honey, and after 21 days in water or sugar syrup at 33 degrees C. Air-dried(More)
The ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of the microsporidium, Nosema apis, has been examined. A new method for extracting microsporidian genomic DNA from infected host tissue is described. Complete DNA sequence data are presented for the small subunit gene (1242 bp), the internal transcribed space (33 bp), and the large subunit gene (2481 bp to a putative(More)
The midgut is a key tissue in insect science. Physiological roles include digestion and peritrophic membrane function, as well as being an important target for insecticides. We used an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to identify candidate genes and gene families involved in these processes in the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)(More)
Host cell and virus gene expression were measured five days after per os inoculation of 3rd instar lightbrown apple moth (LBAM) larvae with the Epiphyas postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus (EppoNPV). Microarray analysis identified 84 insect genes that were up-regulated and 18 genes that were down-regulated in virus-infected larvae compared with uninfected(More)
Rapid elimination of midgut luminal proteinase activity and gut clearance are the two major symptoms of amber disease in Costelytra zealandica larvae because of the three-subunit protein toxin complex produced in Serratia entomophila and Serratia proteamaculans. Quantitative PCR analysis of mRNA from the major serine proteinase gene families showed that(More)
Costelytra zealandica larvae are pests of New Zealand pastures causing damage by feeding on the roots of grasses and clovers. The major larval protein digestive enzymes are serine proteases (SPs), which are targets for disruption in pest control. An expressed sequence tag (EST) library from healthy, third instar larval midgut tissue was constructed and(More)
The cDNA for bovine spleen trypsin inhibitor (SI), a homologue of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), including the natural mammalian presequence was expressed in tobacco using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Stable expression required the N-terminal targeting signal presequence although subcellular localization was not proven. SI(More)
The microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites, that lack mitochondria. Their ribosomes show several prokaryote-like features. This paper presents the secondary structure of the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) of the microsporidium Nosema apis. With its 2481 bases, it is the shortest known non-mitochondrial LSU rRNA. The(More)