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Changes in protein-protein interactions and activity states have been proposed to underlie persistent synaptic remodeling that is induced by transient stimuli. Here, we show an unusual stimulus-dependent transition from a short-lived to long-lasting binding between a synaptic receptor and its transducer. Both molecules, the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B and(More)
We report the long-term effect of real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) training on voluntary regulation of the level of activation from a hand motor area. During the performance of a motor imagery task of a right hand, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal originating from a primary motor area was presented back to the subject in real-time.(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of physiological glutamate signaling involved in higher brain functions. Here, we show CaMKII involvement in pathological glutamate signaling relevant in stroke. The novel inhibitor tatCN21 was neuroprotective even when added hours after glutamate insults. By contrast, the(More)
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)beta has morphogenic functions in neurons not shared by the alpha isoform. CaMKIIbeta contains three exons (v1, v3, and v4) not present in the CaMKIIalpha gene, and two of these exons (v1 and v4) are subject to differential alternative splicing. We show here that CaMKIIbeta, but not alpha,(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of cellular Ca(2+) signaling. Several inhibitors are commonly used to study CaMKII function, but these inhibitors all lack specificity. CaM-KIIN is a natural, specific CaMKII inhibitor protein. CN21 (derived from CaM-KIIN amino acids 43-63) showed full specificity and potency(More)
We report a functional magnetic resonance imaging method to deliver task-specific brain activities as biofeedback signals to guide individuals to increase cortical activity in auditory areas during sound stimulation. A total of 11 study participants underwent multiple functional magnetic resonance imaging scan sessions, while the changes in the activated(More)
The leftward hemispheric dominance in language processing may be associated with fundamental functional asymmetry in the primary auditory cortex (PAC). Based on repeated functional MRI (fMRI) measurements, we investigated the presence of functional asymmetry in the human PAC using binaural presentation of linguistic sounds (two-syllable nouns) and simple(More)
PURPOSE Diagnosis of Rett syndrome (RTT) is often delayed. We sought to determine the type of physician who typically makes the RTT diagnosis and to identify risk factors for delayed diagnosis. METHODS A total of 1085 participants from the multicenter longitudinal RTT natural history study with classic and atypical RTT were recruited between 2006 and(More)
Our earlier study indicated that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based detection and feedback of regional cortical activity from the auditory area enabled a group of individuals to increase the level of activation mediated by auditory attention during sound stimulation. The long-term ability to maintain an increased level of cortical(More)
The investigation of the reproducibility in functional MRI (fMRI) is an important step in the quantification and analysis of paradigm-related brain activation. This article reports on reproducibility of cortical activation characterized by repeated fMRI runs (10 times) during the performance of a motor imagery and a passive auditory stimulation as a control(More)