Heather M Stapleton

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Due to the voluntary withdrawals and/or bans on the use of two polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) commercial mixtures, an increasing number of alternate flame retardant chemicals are being introduced in commercial applications. To determine if these alternate BFRs are present in indoor environments, we analyzed dust samples collected from 19 homes in the(More)
Restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have resulted in the increased use of alternate flame retardant chemicals to meet flammability standards. However, it has been difficult to determine which chemical formulations are currently being used in high volumes to meet flammability standards since the use of flame retardant(More)
Few studies have measured the flame retardants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor environment. Here, we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area in the United States. Dust samples were analyzed for 22 individual PBDE congeners and our results found PBDEs present in every(More)
BACKGROUND Organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), are commonly used as additive flame retardants and plasticizers in a wide range of materials. Although widespread human exposure to OP flame retardants is likely, there is a lack of human and animal data on potential health(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener patterns in biota are often enriched in tetra-, penta-, and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers, which is believed to result from the use of the commercial "pentaBDE" formulation. However, our evidence suggests that debromination of PBDEs occurs within fish tissues leading to appreciable accumulation of less(More)
Assessment of indoor exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) requires a critical examination of methods that may influence exposure estimates and comparisons between studies. We measured PBDEs in residential dust collected from 20 homes in Boston, MA, to examine 5 key questions: 1) Does the choice of dust exposure metric-e.g., concentration(More)
BACKGROUND Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that accumulate in human tissues and are potential toxicants. Concentrations of PBDEs in human tissues have increased recently, and body burdens in the U.S. and Canadian populations are higher than in any other region. OBJECTIVES Although metabolism in animal laboratory(More)
The congener 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) is the primary component in a commonly used flame retardant known as decaBDE. This flame retardant constitutes approximately 80% of the world market demand for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Because this compound is very hydrophobic (log K(ow) approximately 10), it has been(More)
North America consumes over half of the world's production of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. About 98% of global demand for the Penta-BDE mixture, the constituents of which are the most bioaccumulative and environmentally widespread, resides here. However, research on the environmental distribution of PBDEs in North America has(More)
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), the major congener in the high volume industrial flame retardant mixture "DecaBDE", has recently been shown to be metabolized by carp. To further explore this phenomenon, juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to BDE 209 via the diet for a five month period. Analysis of the whole body homogenate, liver, serum, and intestinal(More)