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The present study was designed to evaluate whether fixation point offsets have the same effects on the average latencies of prosaccades (responses towards target) and antisaccades (responses away from target). Gap and overlap conditions were run with and without an acoustic warning signal. The 'gap effect' was taken to be the difference in mean reaction(More)
Three experiments examined the role of eye and limb movements in the maintenance of information in spatial working memory. In Experiment 1, reflexive saccades interfered with memory span for spatial locations but did not interfere with memory span for letters. In Experiment 2, three different types of eye movements (reflexive saccades, pro-saccades, and(More)
Research on when and how to use three-dimensional (3D) perspective views on flat screens for operational tasks such as air traffic control is complex. We propose a functional distinction between tasks: those that require shape understanding versus those that require precise judgments of relative position. The distortions inherent in 3D displays hamper(More)
51 A ir-traffic controllers, military personnel, and others need displays that rapidly convey the location and other attributes of objects (such as aircraft) in 3D space. The ongoing revolution in the availability of inexpensive and fast 3D rendering technologies is allowing display designers to develop 3D prototype displays for this purpose, such as Figure(More)
Subjects produced saccades to continuously visible targets that were signaled by the pitch, not the location, of an auditory signal. Such endogenous saccades were initiated more quickly when the visual fixation point disappeared 200 msec before the signal (thus producing a "gap"), even though the alerting benefits of such a warning were eliminated by an(More)
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the following individuals who reviewed this report for technical accuracy: Conventional tactical displays use nonrealistic two-dimensional (2-D) symbols to depict military assets. Prototypes of three-dimensional (3-D) tactical displays are(More)
The use of three-dimensional (3-D) perspective views on flat screens for military command and control tasks is accelerating. The question is when and how to use these displays effectively. We report the results of three experiments to test the hypotheses that 3-D displays are useful for understanding object shape, but two-dimensional (2-D) displays are more(More)
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. goal of the Command 21 project is the development and operational evaluation of the evolving concept known as the Knowledge Web for use in advanced military command centers ashore and at sea. This report describes a major operational evaluation in the continuing efforts directed toward this goal. (SSC(More)