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The productive cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can be divided into discrete phases. Cell proliferation and episomal maintenance in the lower epithelial layers are followed by genome amplification and the expression of capsid proteins. These events, which occur in all productive infections, can be distinguished by using antibodies to viral gene(More)
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types cause cervical lesions of varying severity, ranging from transient productive infections to high-grade neoplasia. Disease stratification requires the examination of lesional pathology, and possibly also the detection of biomarkers. P16(INK4a) and MCM are established surrogates of high-risk HPV E6/E7 activity, and(More)
Grading cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) determines clinical management of women after abnormal cytology with potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We studied a novel biomarker of human papillomavirus (HPV) life-cycle completion (panHPVE4), in combination with the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein cell-cycle marker and the p16INK4a(More)
The potentially pathogenic effects of infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a B-lymphotropic agent with cell growth-transforming potential, are contained in healthy virus carriers by virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) surveillance. The target antigens against which such CTL responses are directed are yet undefined, but the antigens probably(More)
High-risk human papillomaviruses, such as human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), are the primary cause of cervical cancer. The HPV16 E1=E4 protein associates with keratin intermediate filaments and causes network collapse when expressed in epithelial cells in vitro. Here, we show that keratin association and network reorganization also occur in vivo in(More)
Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a major cause of human disease, and are responsible for approximately half a million cases of cervical cancer each year. HPVs also cause genital warts, and are the most common sexually transmitted disease in many countries. Despite their importance, there are currently no specific antivirals that are active against HPVs.(More)
The keratin IF network of epidermal keratinocytes provides a protective barrier against mechanical insult, it is also a major player in absorbing stress in these cells. The human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16 E1--E4 protein accumulates in the upper layers of HPV16-infected epithelium and is known to associate with and reorganise the keratin IF network in(More)
HPV late gene expression is initiated as an infected basal cell migrates through the differentiating layers of the epidermis, resulting in the onset of vegetative viral DNA replication and the expression of viral late proteins. We have used a large synthetic immunoglobulin library displayed on phage (diversity 6.5 x 10(10) phage) to isolate three Fabs(More)
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infects cervical epithelium and is associated with the majority of cervical cancers. The E1E4 protein of HPV16 but not those of HPV1 or HPV6 was found to associate with a novel member of the DEAD box protein family of RNA helicases through sequences in its C terminus. This protein, termed E4-DBP (E4-DEAD box protein),(More)
The E6 oncoprotein derived from the tumour-associated human papillomavirus (HPV) types induces the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of several cellular proteins by conjugating them with the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6-AP. This is a HECT domain-containing ligase that was originally identified through its involvement in the E6-mediated degradation of the(More)