Heather M Griffin

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BACKGROUND Stimulation of the left vagus nerve (VNS) has been shown to control seizures in double blinded crossover studies in man. Animal studies have reported vagal afferent induced depression of nociceptive and motor reflexes which may be caused by an effect on the descending reticular system controlling spinal cord function. Anticonvulsant drug therapy(More)
BACKGROUND Early studies of cognitive motor control have shown deficits in complex reaction time tests of epileptic subjects. The purpose of this efficacy study was to determine whether chronic (28 months) stimulation of the left vagus nerve (VNS) to control seizures increased these deficits in 6 epileptic subjects with intractable complex partial seizures.(More)
Preliminary results of selected postural measures in quiet standing indicate that stimulation of the vagus nerve appears not to be producing adverse effects. With this specific sample size, more testing is needed to determine long-term effects and future data analyses will examine correlations between electroencephalogram results, drug levels, and seizure(More)
Quantitative measures of area of sway, total sway, and cognitive function failed to show significant differences in acute (50 minute) "ON-OFF-ON-OFF" studies of high frequency left vagal stimulation in three epileptic patients undergoing treatment for chronic complex partial seizures. Fluctuation in blood levels of anticonvulsants may have been associated(More)
Chronic stimulation of the vagus nerve does not seem to produce significant differences between high frequency and low frequency stimulation groups. Individuals within each group show significant changes between preoperative assessment and after 6-month stimulation. Some subjects showed significant improvement and some showed significant slowing of(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have evolved over millions of years to propagate themselves in a range of different animal species including humans. Viruses that have co-evolved slowly in this way typically cause chronic inapparent infections, with virion production in the absence of apparent disease. This is the case for many Beta and Gamma HPV types. The(More)
Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by(More)
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infects cervical epithelium and is associated with the majority of cervical cancers. The E1E4 protein of HPV16 but not those of HPV1 or HPV6 was found to associate with a novel member of the DEAD box protein family of RNA helicases through sequences in its C terminus. This protein, termed E4-DBP (E4-DEAD box protein),(More)
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types cause cervical lesions of varying severity, ranging from transient productive infections to high-grade neoplasia. Disease stratification requires the examination of lesional pathology, and possibly also the detection of biomarkers. P16(INK4a) and MCM are established surrogates of high-risk HPV E6/E7 activity, and(More)
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Although the detection of HPV DNA has proved useful in cervical diagnosis, it does not necessarily predict disease presence or severity, and cannot conclusively identify the causative type when multiple HPVs are present. Such limitations may be addressed(More)