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We established a collection of 7,000 transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of GAL4 in each line is controlled by a different, defined fragment of genomic DNA that serves as a transcriptional enhancer. We used confocal microscopy of dissected nervous systems to determine the expression patterns driven by each fragment in the adult brain and(More)
We identified the neurons comprising the Drosophila mushroom body (MB), an associative center in invertebrate brains, and provide a comprehensive map describing their potential connections. Each of the 21 MB output neuron (MBON) types elaborates segregated dendritic arbors along the parallel axons of ∼2000 Kenyon cells, forming 15 compartments that(More)
Signaling mucins are cell adhesion molecules that activate RAS/RHO guanosine triphosphatases and their effector mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. We found that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mucin Msb2p, which functions at the head of the Cdc42p-dependent MAPK pathway that controls filamentous growth, is processed into secreted and(More)
An important emerging question in the area of signal transduction is how information from different pathways becomes integrated into a highly coordinated response. In budding yeast, multiple pathways regulate filamentous growth, a complex differentiation response that occurs under specific environmental conditions. To identify new aspects of filamentous(More)
The Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) coordinately control cell polarity and proliferation in epithelial and neuronal tissues. While a small group of neoplastic TSG mutations have been isolated and their corresponding genes cloned, the regulatory pathways that normally prevent inappropriate growth remain unclear. Identification of(More)
Cell polarity and cell proliferation can be coupled in animal tissues, but how they are coupled is not understood. In Drosophila imaginal discs, loss of the neoplastic tumor suppressor gene scribble (scrib), which encodes a multidomain scaffolding protein, disrupts epithelial organization and also causes unchecked proliferation. Using an allelic series of(More)
The small GTPase Rab5 has emerged as an important regulator of animal development, and it is essential for endocytic trafficking. However, the mechanisms that link Rab5 activation to cargo entry into early endosomes remain unclear. We show here that Drosophila Rabenosyn (Rbsn) is a Rab5 effector that bridges an interaction between Rab5 and the(More)
A central question in the area of signal transduction is why pathways utilize common components. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOG and filamentous growth (FG) MAPK pathways require overlapping components but are thought to be induced by different stimuli and specify distinct outputs. To better understand the regulation of the FG(More)
The sleep characteristics and the body positions of four men and four women ranging in age from 65 to 75 yr. were monitored in the laboratory for 2 consecutive nights preceded by 2 adaptation nights. Overall, there was an average of 16 position shifts per night with duration of position averaging 33 min. The preferred trunk positions were on the right side(More)
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