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The role of insulin in the brain is still not completely understood. In the periphery, insulin can decrease inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS); however, whether insulin can reduce inflammation within the brain is unknown. Experiments administrating intranasal insulin to young and aged adults have shown that insulin improves memory. In our(More)
Neuroinflammation and degeneration of catecholaminergic brainstem nuclei occur early in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Neuroinflammation increases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal calcium (Ca+2) homoeostasis via L-type voltage dependent calcium channels(More)
Chronic neuroinflammation and calcium (Ca+2) dysregulation are both components of Alzheimer’s disease. Prolonged neuroinflammation produces elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal Ca+2 homeostasis via L-type voltage-dependent Ca+2 channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Chronic(More)
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