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Fragile X Syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. It is also known for having a substantial behavioral morbidity, including autistic features. In humans, Fragile X Syndrome is almost always caused by inactivation of the X-linked FMR1 gene. A single knockout mouse model, fmr1-tm1Cgr, exists. In this report we further characterize(More)
Milk promotes activity in the kappa opioid system of the rat fetus and reduced responsiveness in a behavioral bioassay of cutaneous sensitivity. In this study, E20 rat fetuses were presented with an artificial nipple (CS) and intraoral infusions of milk (US) to condition opioid activity. Paired presentations of the CS and US resulted in conditioned changes(More)
Three experiments were conducted to assess the plasticity of ethanol-mediated conditioned aversions to a tactile stimulus in infant rats. Ten- and 11-day-old rats first acquired an aversion to a texture, by virtue of its pairing with alcohol-induced intoxication. This first conditioning phase was followed by an associative devaluation procedure, a second(More)
BACKGROUND Candida represents the most common cause of invasive fungal disease, and candidal blood stream infections (CBSI) are prevalent in the ICU. Inappropriate antifungal therapy (IAT) is known to increase a patient's risk for death. We hypothesized that in an ICU cohort it would also adversely affect resource utilization. METHODS We retrospectively(More)
Stimuli normally encountered during suckling after birth--the nipple and milk--elicit behavioral responses from fat fetuses on E20. A series of experiments demonstrated that milk, unlike other chemosensory stimuli, consistently evoked mouthing activity during the 15 s after presentation. Unlike other perioral tactile stimuli, an artificial nipple evoked(More)
Classical conditioning in the rat fetus (Embryonic Day 20) was investigated in 4 experiments. Reexposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS; sucrose), after 3 pairings with an unconditioned stimulus (US; milk), reduced fetal facial wiping in a bioassay of perioral cutaneous responsiveness. Reduced responsiveness was evident only in subjects that received paired(More)
The impact of rearing condition was assessed in Sprague-Dawley dams given 40 mg/kg cocaine (C40) or saline (LC control) subcutaneously (SC) from gestational days 8-20 and their offspring. Treated pups reared by their biological dams (LC/LC; C40/C40), treated pups reared by surrogate dams (FOS/LC; FOS/C40), and foster pups raised by treated dams (LC/FOS;(More)
In young rats, several forms of olfactory memory can be functionally localized to one side of the brain by restricting training stimuli to one naris and corresponding olfactory bulb. In the experiment, the analysis of lateralized olfactory learning in 6-day-old rat pups was extended by an evaluation of the consequences of aversive reinforcers in a(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) gram-negative (GN) organisms including Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp has increased in the last decade, prompting re-evaluation of colistin for the management of these infections. Aerosolized colistin as an adjunct to intravenous therapy is a current option for the management of MDR-GN pneumonia,(More)