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BACKGROUND Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has long been viewed as an efficacious treatment for depression, with a large number of published studies allowing its efficacy and utility to be considered closely. METHODS We review original studies and the one published meta-analysis of controlled efficacy trials, examining acute-phase and prophylactic(More)
While differing anxiety disorders have been reported to have quite variable impact on outcome following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a recent study quantified generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as having a distinctly negative impact. We examined anxiety disorder status at baseline for any differential five-year impact on cardiac outcome following(More)
It is commonly suggested that a female preponderance in depression is universal and substantial. This review considers that proposition and explanatory factors. The view that depression rates are universally higher in women is challenged with exceptions to the proposition helping clarify candidate explanations. 'Real' and artefactual explanations for any(More)
BACKGROUND Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. METHOD We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood(More)
Psychomotor disturbance has generally been viewed as a feature of all depressive disorders, merely varying in severity as a consequence of the mood state. As we have elsewhere argued for psychomotor change being specific to melancholia, its definition, measurement and capacity to sub-type depressive disorders may benefit from close consideration. Here we(More)
OBJECTIVE As the authors have observed clinical benefit from the psychostimulants methylphenidate and dexamphetamine for treating resistant melancholic and bipolar depression, those drugs were evaluated in a consecutively recruited sample of 50 such patients. METHOD Patients (27 bipolar, 23 unipolar) received either methylphenidate (n = 44) or(More)
As deficiencies in n-3 PUFAs have been linked separately to depression and to cardiovascular disease, they could act as a higher order variable contributing to the established link between depression and cardiovascular disease. We therefore examine the relationship between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including total n-3(More)
BACKGROUND Conflicting findings have emerged from studies examining the impact of depression on death and readmission following a coronary event, possibly reflecting differences in the measurement of "depression" and the onset of depression in relation to the coronary event. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the timing of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe a regional study seeking to replicate the suggested strong links whereby lifetime and post-coronary infarction depression are associated with a significant increase in mortality and cardiac morbidity, and consider the comparative influence of both depression and anxiety. METHOD We detail relevant international studies and describe(More)
OBJECTIVE While there has long been interest in any nutritional contribution to the onset and treatment of mood disorders, there has been increasing scientific evaluation of several candidate nutritional and dietary factors in recent years. In this paper, we overview research into any vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency contribution to depression. (More)