Heather L. Youngs

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One of the defining features of plants is a body plan based on the physical properties of cell walls. Structural analyses of the polysaccharide components, combined with high-resolution imaging, have provided the basis for much of the current understanding of cell walls. The application of genetic methods has begun to provide new insights into how walls are(More)
Attack by the host powdery mildew Erysiphe cichoracearum usually results in successful penetration and rapid proliferation of the fungus on Arabidopsis. By contrast, the nonhost barley powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) typically fails to penetrate Arabidopsis epidermal cells. In both instances the plant secretes cell wall appositions or(More)
In 2008, the world produced approximately 87 gigaliters of liquid biofuels, which is roughly equal to the volume of liquid fuel consumed by Germany that year. Essentially, all of this biofuel was produced from crops developed for food production, raising concerns about the net energy and greenhouse gas effects and potential competition between use of land(More)
We have used Affymetrix gene chips to measure the expression of 10 CESA and 29 CSL genes of Arabidopsis in different developmental stages or organs. These measurements reveal that many of the genes exhibit different levels of expression in the various organs. While several CESA genes are highly expressed in all the tissues examined, very few CSL genes(More)
The inclusion of cellulosic ethanol in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 and the revised Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) has spurred development of the first commercial scale cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. These efforts have also revived interest in the development of dedicated energy crops selected for biomass productivity and for(More)
Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is an extracellular heme enzyme that catalyzes the peroxide-dependent oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III). The Mn(III) is released from the enzyme in complex with oxalate. One heme propionate and the side chains of Glu35, Glu39, and Asp179 were identified as Mn(II) ligands in the 2.0 A resolution crystal structure. The new 1.45 A(More)
Eastern forests of the US are valued both as a carbon sink and a wood resource. The amount of biomass that can be harvested sustainably from this biome for bioenergy without compromising the carbon sink is uncertain. Using past literature and previously validated models, we assessed four scenarios of biomass harvest in the eastern US: partial harvests of(More)
Attack by the host powdery mildew Erysiphe cichoracearum usually results in successful penetration and rapid proliferation of the fungus on Arabidopsis. By contrast, the non-host barley powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) typically fails to penetrate Arabidopsis epidermal cells. In both instances the plant secretes cell wall appositions or(More)
Date _________________________________________ 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my advisor, Ramakrishna Wusirika, for all his help and guidance throughout my graduate career, as well as the other members of my committee, John Adler, Don Leuking, and Shekhar Joshi for their insights and feedback on my work. Many thanks are due to my various employers(More)