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The developing nervous system is preferentially vulnerable to lead exposure with alterations in neuronal and glial cells of the brain. The present study examined early lead-induced alterations in the developing astrocyte population by examination of the developmentally regulated astrocyte specific protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). A(More)
Despite mandated reduction in environmental lead (Pb++), such exposure still poses a public health hazard for children, with devastating effects on CNS development. To replicate aspects of this neurotoxicity, we used cultured granule cells from newborn rat cerebella to study whether apoptotic or necrotic death is the major consequence of exposure to low(More)
The literature on the toxicology of lead provides little evidence of the neurotoxicity of organic lead compounds. Toxicant-induced changes in the concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the brain may help clarify at which stage of neurotoxicity astrocytes are affected and whether GFAP may provide an index of toxicity. Male F344 rats (> 42(More)
The small, but vital, niche of nonhuman primates in neurotoxicology is examined. Several models of sensory and cognitive function have been especially useful with primates. Their sensitivity to low doses is clear. The validity of data from these models is indicated by their high correlation with data from intoxicated and normal humans, by the degree to(More)
An historical cohort study of twins, aged 6 to 15 years, found reduced cognitive performance related to subclinical exposure to lead (Pb) much earlier in life. Pairs of twins discordant for blood Pb (low-Pb twins ranged from 30-50 micrograms/dl and high-Pb twins ranged from 43-80 micrograms/dl) exhibited reduced learning of a computer-administered visual(More)
Stumptail monkeys (Macaca arctoides) performed a discrete trial, three-choice visual discrimination. The discrimination behavior was controlled by the shape of the visual stimuli. Strength of the stimuli in controlling behavior was systematically related to a physical property of the stimuli, luminance. Low luminance provided weak control, resulting in a(More)
BACKGROUND The successful treatment of intraabdominal infection requires a combination of anatomical source control and antibiotics. The appropriate duration of antimicrobial therapy remains unclear. METHODS We randomly assigned 518 patients with complicated intraabdominal infection and adequate source control to receive antibiotics until 2 days after the(More)
Cynomolgus macaque monkeys received head-only exposure to 0, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4500 ppm toluene for 50 min while simultaneously tested for delayed matching-to-sample behavior, a test of cognitive functions. Response time increased and accuracy of matching decreased at 2000 ppm or more of toluene, indicating an attentional deficit but not(More)
Histopathologic and autoradiographic studies were performed on monkeys of the genera Saimiri and Macaca after acute and chronic oral exposure to several dosage regimens of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg). Neuropathologic changes were primarily cortical, although subcortical lesions also were observed. Autoradiographic localization of 203-Hg was greatest(More)