Heather L. Alexander

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OBJECTIVE To analyse the feasibility, cost and performance of rapid tuberculosis (TB) molecular and culture systems, in a high multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) middle-income region (Samara, Russia) and provide evidence for WHO policy change. METHODS Performance and cost evaluation was conducted to compare the BACTEC MGIT 960 system for culture and drug(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis followed by effective treatment of tuberculosis (TB) reduces transmission and saves lives in persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Sputum smear microscopy is widely used for diagnosis, despite limited sensitivity in PLHIV. Evidence is needed to determine the optimal diagnostic approach for these patients. METHODS From May 2011 through June(More)
Several genetic systems that allow the use of iron-protoporphyrin IX (heme) have been described for the pathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. However, many questions about the process of heme acquisition and utilization remain to be answered. To isolate and analyze unidentified genes that play a role in heme iron uptake and utilization, a Himar1(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the performance of symptom-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), alone and with chest radiography among people living with HIV (PLHIV), including pregnant women, in Western Kenya. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS PLHIV from 15 randomly-selected HIV clinics were screened with three clinical algorithms [World Health(More)
BACKGROUND In 2012, as a pilot for Botswana's national Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) rollout plans, intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) activities were strengthened at 22 HIV treatment clinics prior to phased activation of 13 Xpert instruments. Together, the strengthened ICF intervention and Xpert activation are referred to as the "Xpert package". (More)
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