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The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses alfuzosin as an example of a drug having QT risk in humans that was not detected in nonclinical studies. FDA approval required a thorough clinical QT study (TCQS) that was weakly positive at high doses. The FDA has used the clinical/nonclinical discordance as a basis for mandatory TCQS, and this(More)
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a protein kinase involved in maintaining energy homeostasis within cells. On the basis of human genetic association data, AMPK activators were pursued for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Identification of an indazole amide high throughput screening (HTS) hit followed by truncation to its(More)
Drug interactions elicited through inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are important in pharmacotherapy. Recently, greater attention has been focused on not only parent drugs inhibiting P450 enzymes but also on possible inhibition of these enzymes by circulating metabolites. In this report, an ex vivo method whereby the potential for circulating(More)
Previous studies have revealed that the glucoincretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)(7-36)amide is metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) to yield GLP-1(9-36)amide and GLP-1(28-36)amide, respectively, as the principal metabolites. Contrary to the previous notion that GLP-1(7-36)amide metabolites are(More)
The United States Public Health Service Administration is alerting medical professionals that a substantial percentage of cocaine imported into the United States is adulterated with levamisole, a veterinary pharmaceutical that can cause blood cell disorders such as severe neutropenia and agranulocytosis. Levamisole was previously approved in combination(More)
A series of cyclic peptides were designed and prepared to investigate the physicochemical properties that affect oral bioavailabilty of this chemotype in rats. In particular, the ionization state of the peptide was examined by the incorporation of naturally occurring amino acid residues that are charged in differing regions of the gut. In addition, data was(More)
UNLABELLED Several methods have been and are in use for assessing the in vitro sensitivity and resistance of an individual woman's tumor cells. We report the predictive accuracy of an optimized chemoresponsiveness test. PATIENTS AND METHODS In a retrospective chart review of 18 women with late stage, papillary serous ovarian cancer undergoing 21 episodes(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)(7-36)amide is a 30-amino acid peptide hormone that is secreted from intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells in response to nutrients. GLP-1(7-36)amide possesses potent insulinotropic actions in the augmentation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion. GLP-1(7-36)amide is rapidly metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV to yield(More)
The current study examined the bioactivation potential of ghrelin receptor inverse agonists, 1-{2-[2-chloro-4-(2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl)benzyl]-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-7-yl}-2-(imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-6-yl)ethanone (1) and 1-{2-[2-chloro-4-(2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl)benzyl]-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-7-yl}-2-(2-methylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-6-yl)ethanone (2),(More)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme peroxidase that catalyzes the production of hypochlorous acid. Clinical evidence suggests a causal role for MPO in various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders including vasculitis and cardiovascular and Parkinson's diseases, implying that MPO inhibitors may represent a therapeutic treatment option. Herein, we present the(More)