Heather Butler

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*Michael Ashburner1, Catherine A. Ball3, Judith A. Blake4, David Botstein3, Heather Butler1, J. Michael Cherry3, Allan P. Davis4, Kara Dolinski3, Selina S. Dwight3, Janan T. Eppig4, Midori A. Harris3, David P. Hill4, Laurie Issel-Tarver3, Andrew Kasarskis3, Suzanna Lewis2, John C. Matese3, Joel E. Richardson4, Martin Ringwald4, Gerald M. Rubin2 & Gavin(More)
There is a long history of science fiction novels and movies that feature aliens from other worlds conquering our planet, either overtly as in The War of the Worlds, or covertly as in The Arrival. Aliens have also infiltrated video games, starting with Space Invaders, and more recently with Aliens vs. Predator. Extraterrestrials have also appeared in(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first enzyme in the kynurenine pathway. The kynurenines formed in this pathway chemically modify proteins and cause apoptosis in cells. Evidence suggests that kynurenines and their protein modifications are involved in cataract formation, but this has yet to be directly demonstrated. We generated transgenic (Tg)(More)
OperationARIES! is an Intelligent Tutoring System that teaches scientific inquiry skills in a game-like atmosphere. Students complete three different training modules, each with natural language conversations, in order to acquire deep-level knowledge of 21 core concepts of research methodology (e.g., correlation does not mean causation). The student first(More)
Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway(More)
Students interacted with an Intelligent Tutoring System called Operation ARIES!,which involves two agents interacting with the human in natural language trialogs. We investigated the conditions in which the length of the students’ contributions is correlated with learning. Word count and the proportional learning gains scores were correlated, especially in(More)
defence. The patient had solid defence in law – a) non-insane automatism and b) involuntary intoxication. Based on the evidential test alone, I fail to see why the CPS decided to prosecute the patient. It is submitted the CPS failed to apply the test properly or at all. The CPS has covered itself but with glory. Can any lesson be learnt from this case? It(More)
Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway(More)