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The accelerating availability of molecular sequences, particularly the sequences of entire genomes, has transformed both the theory and practice of experimental biology. Where once biochemists characterized proteins by their diverse activities and abundances, and geneticists characterized genes by the phenotypes of their mutations, all biologists now(More)
There is a long history of science fiction novels and movies that feature aliens from other worlds conquering our planet, either overtly as in The War of the Worlds, or covertly as in The Arrival. Aliens have also infiltrated video games, starting with Space Invaders, and more recently with Aliens vs. Predator. Extraterrestrials have also appeared in(More)
Fusions with fluorescent proteins are usually created by fusing the ends of two coding sequences. Appending the coding region of a fluorescent protein to the N- or C-terminus of another protein is typically the easiest way of creating a functional, fluorescent fusion protein. Another strategy involves placing the fluorescent protein in the middle of another(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first enzyme in the kynurenine pathway. The kynurenines formed in this pathway chemically modify proteins and cause apoptosis in cells. Evidence suggests that kynurenines and their protein modifications are involved in cataract formation, but this has yet to be directly demonstrated. We generated transgenic (Tg)(More)
Students interacted with an Intelligent Tutoring System called Operation ARIES!,which involves two agents interacting with the human in natural language trialogs. We investigated the conditions in which the length of the students' contributions is correlated with learning. Word count and the proportional learning gains scores were correlated, especially in(More)
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