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This paper compiles animal and human data on the biologic effects and exposure levels of phytoestrogens in order to identify areas of research in which direct species comparisons can be made. In vitro and in vivo assays of phytoestrogen action and potency are reviewed and compared to actions, dose-response relationships, and estimates of exposure in human(More)
There is growing concern that naturally occurring and chemically manufactured endocrine-active compounds (EACs) may disrupt hormone-dependent events during central nervous system development. We examined whether postnatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) or the plastics component bisphenol-A (BIS) affected sexual differentiation of the(More)
Epidemiological evidence suggests that isoflavone phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of cancer, osteoporosis, and heart disease, effects at least partially mediated by estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERalpha and ERbeta). Because isoflavone dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular and are frequently advertised as natural alternatives to(More)
BACKGROUND Firemaster® 550 (FM550) is commonly added to residential furniture to reduce its flammability. Recent toxicological evidence suggests that FM550 may be endocrine disrupting and obesogenic. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to develop methods to assess exposure to FM550 in human populations and to identify potential routes of exposure. METHODS(More)
Firemaster® 550 (FM 550), a fire-retardant mixture used in foam-based products, was recently identified as a common contaminant in household dust. The chemical structures of its principle components suggest they have endocrine disrupting activity, but nothing is known about their physiological effects at environmentally relevant exposure levels. The goal of(More)
The phytoestrogen coumestrol has estrogenic actions on peripheral reproductive tissues. Yet in the brain this compound has both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. We used estrogen receptor alpha knockout mice (ERalphaKO) to determine whether coumestrol has estrogenic actions in mice and also if these effects are mediated by the classic ERalpha. Female(More)
Changes in the volumes of sexually dimorphic brain nuclei are often used as a biomarker for developmental disruption by endocrine-active compounds (EACs). However, these gross, morphological analyses do not reliably predict disruption of cell phenotype or neuronal function. In the present experiments, we used a more comprehensive approach to assess whether(More)
Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds is hypothesized to adversely affect female reproductive physiology by interfering with the organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Here, we compared the effects of neonatal exposure to two environmentally relevant doses of the plastics component bisphenol-A (BPA; 50 microg/kg and 50(More)
Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to(More)
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) are differentially distributed in the brain and likely mediate different estrogen-dependent processes. ERbeta is abundant in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the amygdala of the rat. In the paraventricular(More)