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This paper compiles animal and human data on the biologic effects and exposure levels of phytoestrogens in order to identify areas of research in which direct species comparisons can be made. In vitro and in vivo assays of phytoestrogen action and potency are reviewed and compared to actions, dose-response relationships, and estimates of exposure in human(More)
There is growing concern that naturally occurring and chemically manufactured endocrine-active compounds (EACs) may disrupt hormone-dependent events during central nervous system development. We examined whether postnatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) or the plastics component bisphenol-A (BIS) affected sexual differentiation of the(More)
Firemaster® 550 (FM 550), a fire-retardant mixture used in foam-based products, was recently identified as a common contaminant in household dust. The chemical structures of its principle components suggest they have endocrine disrupting activity, but nothing is known about their physiological effects at environmentally relevant exposure levels. The goal of(More)
BACKGROUND Firemaster® 550 (FM550) is commonly added to residential furniture to reduce its flammability. Recent toxicological evidence suggests that FM550 may be endocrine disrupting and obesogenic. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to develop methods to assess exposure to FM550 in human populations and to identify potential routes of exposure. METHODS(More)
Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to(More)
It is well established that estrogen administration during neonatal development can advance pubertal onset and prevent the maintenance of regular estrous cycles in female rats. This treatment paradigm also eliminates the preovulatory rise of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). It remains unclear, however, through which of the two primary forms of the(More)
Phytoestrogens, estrogenic compounds derived from plants, are ubiquitous in human and animal diets. These chemicals are generally much less potent than estradiol but act via similar mechanisms. The most common source of phytoestrogen exposure to humans is soybean-derived foods that are rich in the isoflavones genistein and daidzein. These isoflavones are(More)
Now under intense scrutiny, due to its endocrine disrupting properties, the potential threat the plastics component bisphenol-A (BPA) poses to human health remains unclear. Found in a multitude of polycarbonate plastics, food and beverage containers, and medical equipment, BPA is thought to bind to estrogen receptors (ERs), thereby interfering with(More)
Early life exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), a component of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, alters sociosexual behavior in numerous species including humans. The present study focused on the ontogeny of these behavioral effects beginning in adolescence and assessed the underlying molecular changes in the amygdala. We also explored the mitigating(More)
Changes in the volumes of sexually dimorphic brain nuclei are often used as a biomarker for developmental disruption by endocrine-active compounds (EACs). However, these gross, morphological analyses do not reliably predict disruption of cell phenotype or neuronal function. In the present experiments, we used a more comprehensive approach to assess whether(More)