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Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of physiological glutamate signaling involved in higher brain functions. Here, we show CaMKII involvement in pathological glutamate signaling relevant in stroke. The novel inhibitor tatCN21 was neuroprotective even when added hours after glutamate insults. By contrast, the(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of cellular Ca(2+) signaling. Several inhibitors are commonly used to study CaMKII function, but these inhibitors all lack specificity. CaM-KIIN is a natural, specific CaMKII inhibitor protein. CN21 (derived from CaM-KIIN amino acids 43-63) showed full specificity and potency(More)
Changes in protein-protein interactions and activity states have been proposed to underlie persistent synaptic remodeling that is induced by transient stimuli. Here, we show an unusual stimulus-dependent transition from a short-lived to long-lasting binding between a synaptic receptor and its transducer. Both molecules, the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B and(More)
Although leukemic stem cells (LSCs) show a symbiotic relationship with bone marrow microenvironmental niches, the mechanism by which the marrow microenvironment contributes to self-renewal and proliferation of LSCs remains elusive. In the present study, we identified a unique subpopulation of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic(More)
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a genetic defect in the production of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase. This results in lysosomal and extracellular accumulation of the undegraded glycosaminoglycan (GAG) substrate, heparan sulphate. Affected patients show progressive CNS degeneration characterised(More)
Enhancement of hematopoietic recovery after radiation, chemotherapy, or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is clinically relevant. Dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP4) cleaves a wide variety of substrates, including the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). In the course of experiments showing that inhibition of DPP4 enhances SDF-1-mediated(More)
Traditionally, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength requires Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and other kinases, whereas long-term depression (LTD) requires phosphatases. Here, we found that LTD also requires CaMKII and its phospho-T286-induced "autonomous" (Ca(2+)-independent) activity. However, whereas(More)
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)beta has morphogenic functions in neurons not shared by the alpha isoform. CaMKIIbeta contains three exons (v1, v3, and v4) not present in the CaMKIIalpha gene, and two of these exons (v1 and v4) are subject to differential alternative splicing. We show here that CaMKIIbeta, but not alpha,(More)
Dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP) 4 has the potential to truncate proteins with a penultimate alanine, proline, or other selective amino acids at the N-terminus. DPP4 truncation of certain chemokines, colony-stimulating factors, and interleukins have recently been linked to regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, more mature blood cells, and other cell(More)
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and the NMDA-type glutamate receptor are key regulators of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. Direct binding of CaMKII to the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B (formerly known as NR2B) (i) is induced by Ca(2+)/CaM but outlasts this initial Ca(2+)-stimulus, (ii) mediates CaMKII(More)