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Changes in protein-protein interactions and activity states have been proposed to underlie persistent synaptic remodeling that is induced by transient stimuli. Here, we show an unusual stimulus-dependent transition from a short-lived to long-lasting binding between a synaptic receptor and its transducer. Both molecules, the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B and(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of physiological glutamate signaling involved in higher brain functions. Here, we show CaMKII involvement in pathological glutamate signaling relevant in stroke. The novel inhibitor tatCN21 was neuroprotective even when added hours after glutamate insults. By contrast, the(More)
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)beta has morphogenic functions in neurons not shared by the alpha isoform. CaMKIIbeta contains three exons (v1, v3, and v4) not present in the CaMKIIalpha gene, and two of these exons (v1 and v4) are subject to differential alternative splicing. We show here that CaMKIIbeta, but not alpha,(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of cellular Ca(2+) signaling. Several inhibitors are commonly used to study CaMKII function, but these inhibitors all lack specificity. CaM-KIIN is a natural, specific CaMKII inhibitor protein. CN21 (derived from CaM-KIIN amino acids 43-63) showed full specificity and potency(More)
Traditionally, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength requires Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and other kinases, whereas long-term depression (LTD) requires phosphatases. Here, we found that LTD also requires CaMKII and its phospho-T286-induced "autonomous" (Ca(2+)-independent) activity. However, whereas(More)
Dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP) 4 has the potential to truncate proteins with a penultimate alanine, proline, or other selective amino acids at the N-terminus. DPP4 truncation of certain chemokines, colony-stimulating factors, and interleukins have recently been linked to regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, more mature blood cells, and other cell(More)
Outside of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the role of Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in mediating neuropsychological abnormalities is not clear. FMRP, p70-S6 kinase (S6K) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are thought to cooperate as a dynamic signaling complex. In our prior work, adult rats have enhanced CA1 hippocampal long-term depression (LTD)(More)
BACKGROUND The host's response to infection is characterized by altered levels of neurotrophins and an influx of inflammatory cells to sites of injured tissue. Progenitor cells that give rise to the differentiated cellular mediators of inflammation are derived from bone marrow progenitor cells where their development is regulated, in part, by cues from bone(More)
A hallmark feature of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is generation of autonomous (Ca(2+)-independent) activity by T286 autophosphorylation. Biochemical studies have shown that "autonomous" CaMKII is ∼5-fold further stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM, but demonstration of a physiological function for such regulation within cells has(More)
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and the NMDA-type glutamate receptor are key regulators of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. Direct binding of CaMKII to the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B (formerly known as NR2B) (i) is induced by Ca(2+)/CaM but outlasts this initial Ca(2+)-stimulus, (ii) mediates CaMKII(More)