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Descriptions of recently evolved genes suggest several mechanisms of origin including exon shuffling, gene fission/fusion, retrotransposition, duplication-divergence, and lateral gene transfer, all of which involve recruitment of preexisting genes or genetic elements into new function. The importance of noncoding DNA in the origin of novel genes remains an(More)
The fraction of the genome associated with male reproduction in Drosophila may be unusually dynamic. For example, male reproduction-related genes show higher-than-average rates of protein divergence and gene expression evolution compared to most Drosophila genes. Drosophila male reproduction may also be enriched for novel genetic functions. Our earlier(More)
Unusual properties of molecular evolution in reproduction-related Drosophila genes, including atypically rapid rates of protein evolution, support the idea that natural selection plays an important role in divergence of reproductive function in Drosophila. We used subtractive hybridization to investigate another potential side of evolution of the male(More)
The mutational origin and subsequent evolution of de novo genes, which are hypothesized to be genes of recent origin that are not obviously related to ancestral coding sequence, are poorly understood. However, accumulating evidence suggests that such genes may often function in male reproduction. Here we use testis-derived expressed sequence tags (ESTs)(More)
Efficacious delivery of drugs and genes to the heart is an important goal. Here, a radiolabeled peptide-targeted liposome was engineered to bind to the heart, and the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics were determined by dynamic positron emission tomography in the FVB mouse. Efficient targeting occurred only with an exposed ligand and a dense(More)
Repeated administration of chemotherapeutics is typically required for the effective treatment of highly aggressive tumors and often results in systemic toxicity. We have created a copper-doxorubicin complex within the core of liposomes and applied the resulting particle in multidose therapy. Copper and doxorubicin concentrations in the blood pool were(More)
We report a comparison between tumor perfusion estimates acquired using contrast-enhanced MRI and motion-corrected contrast-enhanced ultrasound before and after treatment with AG-028262, a potent vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Antiangiogenic activity was determined by assessing weekly ultrasound and MRI images of rats(More)
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are nontoxic, can be functionalized with ligands, and preferentially accumulate in tumors. We have developed a 13.56-MHz RF-electromagnetic field (RF-EM) delivery system capable of generating high E-field strengths required for noninvasive, noncontact heating of GNPs. The bulk heating and specific heating rates were measured as a(More)
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